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Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903) philosopher, social theorist, and sociologist
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Letter from R. C. Trevelyan to Caroline Trevelyan

Gwalior Hotel. Gwalior. - Arrived here yesterday and leave tomorrow, probably for Ch[h]atarpur as guests of the Rajah, a 'great reader of Marie Corelli and Herbert Spencer'; hope to see a city near the capital where there are 'some fine Hindu temples' [Khajuraho?]. They are waiting from a letter from the Rajah and may not go at all; will go straight to Benares if so, then on to Gaya and Calcutta. They went up to the Fort this morning on an elephant; it is 'best to take a sea-sick remedy before starting', and he walked most of the way back. They saw some fine temples and a palace; the 'rock is rather like Orvieto, only larger' and the surrounding countryside is 'more beautiful' than North India usually seems to be. Tomorrow, they will be given a tour of the Maharaja's palace by his finance minister Sultan Ahmed Khan, a Muslim alumnus of Christ's Cambridge, who is married to an English lady. They have just heard from the Rajah of Chatarpur that he can be their host, so expects to reach Benares about Monday or Tuesday next week. Had a 'cheerful letter from Bessie' in the Netherlands by the last mail; the Bottomleys are 'comfortably settled in the Shiffolds'. Does not know when Bessie will go north again, but supposes she will fetch Julian back before long. Has been reading the [Robert Louis] Stevenson letters which his mother gave him; glad he kept them till now; thinks he likes the letters better than any of Stevenson's books. They make him want to be in England or on the Mediterranean 'a little too much', though he is having a 'splendid time' and is glad he came, since he 'certainly shall never come here again'. Still possible he may have a few weeks in Japan before his return, in which case they [he and Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson] would only stop a few days in China, at Hong Kong then Shanghai. Hopes the food at the Rajah's will be good, as they 'have not had very pleasant experience of Indian dinners so far'; he was quite ill after a dinner in Delhi. Sends love to his father and Julian; will write next mail from Benares.

Letter from J.H. Stirling to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks HS for sending him his book The Methods of Ethics, and says that he will 'take it up and read it from time to time'. Refers to the attitude of Hume and Hegel to ethics, and also refers to Begriff and [Alt]. States that he fears that he shall not be able to take the same interest 'in these Mills and Bains and Spencers, etc.' as Sidgwick does. Has no doubt, however, that he will gain much from the matter and form of his book.

Stirling, James Hutchison (1820-1909) philosopher

Letter from Mary Sidgwick to Henry Sidgwick

Expresses her appreciation for his letter, which she received after seeing Mr [William] Boyd and Charles to the station, and explains that the presence of friends prevented her from writing to him. Reports that his Aunt [ ] came to stay, as did [John?] William, Katie and Annie Lace. She went with the latter three to Oxford, where she saw Mr Boyd at Merton College and Mrs Boyd and Charles at University College. Reports that Charles has been unwell.

Reports that she had been to Rugby, and that when she entered the house - Mr T. Evans' old one' - the servant told her that her master [Mr Palmer] 'was not quite sure that he was going away!!' States that she has since had 'an uncertain letter from Ladkin'. Is anxious that her family should have some place to call home. Reports that Fergus Moultrie is ill. States that she received a letter from Miss Mackenzie that day, and that Mrs Moberly has called upon her twice.

Reports that Henry's Aunt Ellen intends to pay her a visit for her last ten days in Leamington, and that she hopes to have Lucy Brown to visit as well. Asks him to tell her when his Easter vacation is. Hears that Henry's Aunt Lace is 'decidedly better', and that John Henry is still at home, no tutor having yet been found for him. Reports on the schooling arrangements for Robert, Alfred, Tryphosa and Julia, and remarks on how troublesome it is 'when you have very dull children to deal with!'

Announces that she is very anxious to have some absorbing book; refers to Herbert Spencer's book which William mentioned to her, and asks Henry to send it to her. Is very pleased to hear about Bernard. States that she has good accounts from Wellington College; that Minnie and Edward are both well, and that the baby's vocabulary is increasing. Remarks on the fact that Lord Derby is elected President of the College. States the report of Mr U[mpleby]'s death at Bolton Abbey is false, and that Christ Church, Skipton has a new incumbent, Mr Clarke, and that there is much anxiety about the appointment of a vicar of Bingley.

Reports that Henry's Aunt Mary Jane [Sidgwick] has been visiting her brother at Bathford, and that during her absence his Uncle Robert has been paying Mr Balme a visit at Cole Wall. States that times for the mills are very bad and that there are many unemployed people. Claims that she knows no one in Leamington, and does not like to ask for an introduction to Mr Martin's brother and sister. Reports that Ada Benson is now with the Dales at Dresden, and that she is better. Complains about the sermons she has heard in Leamington. Is glad that Arthur is well, and hopes that Henry is too, and asks if it is true that Sh[ ] has come to Cambridge. Reports that Mr Boyd has given her a beautiful book for Carte de Visite photographs, and encourages Henry to get his done for her. States that she has not yet seen Mrs Dakyns, but hopes to do so soon.

Sidgwick, Mary (d 1879) mother of Henry Sidgwick

Copy letter from Henry Sidgwick to Lady Victoria Welby-Gregory

Typewritten copy of letter dated 11 August 1891. Says that her two pamphlets she sent him have greatly interested him; believes that her Great Cloud of Witnesses will be most improving to the reader, 'if it does not reduce him to a too depressing state of scepticism.' Observes that it is difficult 'to persuade a plain man to go through the process necessary to attain precision of thought': attempted to do something similar in The Principles of Political Economy, but fears that he 'bored the readers horribly'. Would much like to see Herbert Spencer's answer to her Apparent Paradox; refers to the belief in ancestral ghosts. If she wants 'to call Locke as a "witness", it would be easy to find suitable quotations in Chap. ix of Book III of the Essays on the Human Understanding, which deals with the "Imperfection of Words".' Also refers to 'Aphorism xv in [Bacon's] Novum Organum'. However, he believes modern instances to be more impressive, 'as it might be supposed that the progress of science had removed the evils pointed out by Bacon and Locke.'

Gregory, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Maria Louisa Welby- (1837-1912) Lady Welby, philosopher

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to F.W.H. Myers

Announces his intended movements over the following days, which include remaining in Margate until the following Tuesday, lunching in London, travelling to Harrow, staying with [Auberon?] Herbert in London, travelling to Wellington College [to see the Bensons], staying with Trevelyan at Weybridge, and travelling to Roden Noel. States that after 24 [June] he heads for Cambridge. Asks Myers if he intends to go to Miss Bonham Carter, and hopes that they [Sidgwick and Myers] shall meet.

Hopes that his ['____'] was effective, and states that he 'found it a pleasant Summer Beverage.' [Note in Myers' hand states that he cannot remember to whom Sidgwick refers]. Claims that Myers' 'emotional dissipation' fills him with 'entertainment, envy, amazement and certain sympathetic gloomy forebodings...' In relation to his work on philosophy, states that he thinks he has 'made a point or two about Justice', but that the relation of the s[exes] still puzzles him. Asks if the permanent movement of civilised man is 'towards the Socialism of force, or the Socialism of persuasion (Comte), or individualism (H. Spencer)?'. Quotes in Greek from Euripides' Bacchae 333-336: 'εἰ μὴ γὰρ ἔστιν ὁ θεὸς οὗτος, ὡς σὺ φῄς/παρὰ σοὶ λεγέσθω...' [Even if he is not a god, as you say, call him one...], adding 'This is not what the Devil says now, but something much subtler in the same style'.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to F.W.H. Myers

Regrets that he cannot come to town, due to pressures of work. A review of Herbert Spencer and an article on the Sophists are due in the middle of March. Thinks that he shall be in town on Sunday 30 March, when he shall have time to meet Mrs H. H[ ]. Must give lectures every day next week, and 'could not conveniently get away for a night'.

Accepts an invitation to go to Brandon House [Myers' home in Cheltenham] in April, unless he needs to take sea-air for his health; if so, he will go to Freshwater, where the air agrees with him, 'and occasional contemplation of the Laureate affords one of the purest pleasures that [man's] fallen nature has to give'. Leslie Stephen will probably also be there, and he need not tell Myers that 'one who cultivates his pen ought also to cultivate editors'. If these reasons do not seem 'adequate' to Myers, he should add that Sidgwick wishes to work on his book as he intends to bring it out after all.

Asks Myers to convey his thanks to Lady Monteagle for her kind invitation. Explains that he could not get away on Saturday as 'SC is coming up to discuss academic organisation with [him]'. [Note in Myers' hand explains that this is a reference to 'Sidney Colvin a critic']. Claims that he feels moved to criticise Herbert Spencer somewhat severely, and is 'in fear and trembling' lest he does so ignorantly.

Letter from R. C. Trevelyan to Edward Marsh

Hotel Cecil, Agra, India. - Gratified that Edward wants his "Dirge" for the anthology [the first "Georgian Poetry"]; Bessie has sent on Edward's letter, and says she has written to him about it; quotes [Horace Odes 1.1] in Latin. Glad that poem has been chosen, which he thinks the best in the book ["Mallow and Asphodel"]; Edward can do as he thinks best about the italicised 'that' in the last verse. Is here with [Goldsworthy Lowes] Dickinson and [E.M] Forster; they went to the Taj [Mahal] last night, just after sunset, and found it much better than they expected, 'really one of the perfectly beautiful things in the world'. There are 'wonderful things in India, and the people are always a delight to watch', but so far it 'seems to be uglier than any country [Bob] has yet seen'; had not understood before how beautiful Italy was. However, the 'evening is more beautiful than in Europe, and transfigures even the Punjab'; Agra is better, with gardens and the river. They have been to Ajanta and seen the Buddhist frescoes which 'are first-rate' though in bad condition; the Hindu temples and sculptures are 'usually' ugly, but they have not seen the best yet. Will probably part company with Forster in a few weeks and go on to Benares and Calcutta, while he stays in this region; Forster will go to Calcutta later and home in spring, while Bob and Dickinson hope to reach Java in early March, perhaps travelling via Burma; Bob hopes to spend April in China then return home in May by rail. They met W[illiam] Archer recently, and hope to see him again tomorrow when they are going with him in a motor car to Fatehpur Sikri . Bob has 'had one native dinner, and was ill the next day with a temperature of 101 [Fahrenheit]'. They are going to stay with a Maharaja next week, '40 miles from any railway, who has a ruined town with twenty or thirty temples in it, one of them to the 64 female demons'; he [the Maharaja of Chhatarpur] is 'a great talker, and admirer of Herbert Spencer'; they hope he keeps elephants; Bob has seen none yet.

Letter from W. K. Clifford to Georgina Pollock

Belfast.—Before he came to the British Association meeting he and Lucy went to see her parents at Worthing. Refers humorously to the way in which he raised the subject of their marriage with her father. Tyndall, Spencer, and Huxley were delighted with Fred’s letter. Has been with Corfield and Atchison to hear Jellett lecture. Sends sympathies to Fred's legs.

(With envelope.)

Letter from R.H. Hutton to Henry Sidgwick

Asks when Sidgwick reviewed Spencer, and declares that he would like to read the review. Puts forward the claim that he and Spencer mean the same thing by a priori. Discusses the qualities of judgments that are a priori as opposed to those that are not; the perception of a leaf's greenness and a boy's cleverness, are not, in his opinion a priori judgments, whereas the judgment that an action is good or bad is a priori, because he claims to 'fully understand [sic] the action, independently of any comparison of it with other actions of a like kind'.

Hutton, Richard Holt (1826-1897) journalist

Letters from J. Armitage Robinson

Letters dated 19 Dec. 1892 and 5 Feb. 1906. Accompanied by a printed circular, "Correspondence about a proposed Memorial in Westminster Abbey to the late Mr. Herbert Spencer".

MS notes dictated by Henry Sidgwick with regard to his work and what is to be done with it

In Nora Sidgwick's hand. Refers to his lectures on philosophical subjects, some of which he believes should be published. Suggests that a young man might be employed to work on some of them and that [James] Ward might read the proofs through 'and give advice on any point of difficulty.' Refers also to a number of lectures that he had intended to make into a book on Kant and Kantism in England, and also to works on [T. H. ] Green, agnosticism and relativism and two lectures on [Herbert] Spencer. Does not believe that the lectures on Epistemology 'in connection with [Christoph von] Sigwart' are worth publishing as a continuous whole, but thinks certain parts of them might be published as fragments. Suggests Ward's involvement, so long as he would not undertake too much work.

Refers also to his articles on ethics, printed and unprinted. Expresses his wish that the question of 'the usefulness to mankind' be the '[ ] principle for deciding on publication', and that the volume of the labour required should be taken into account also. Would like lectures that are not published to be handed over to anyone who may be lecturing on that particular subject, and mentions in particular some fragmentary lectures on his book on The Elements of Politics, which he would like to be offered to Th[ ] or Dickinson or divided between them.

Has done a good deal of reading for a book, The Development of European Polity, for which the plan is sketched 'in the first lecture of a pamphlet containing 3 printed lectures.' Has been his view 'more and more of late years that a three fold treatment of Political Science is desirable for [ ]', and lays out his theory. Would like the teachers of Political Science to be consulted on the possibility of working out his plans with the aid of his material. Again suggests that a young man might be paid to work on this matter. Expresses concern over expense, and states that he believes his work to be 'too sketchy and amateurish for it to be desirable to use it otherwise than as material.' Was comtemplating giving up the idea of publication so long as he held his chair 'feeling that the time and labour required to make it an adequately scholarly work would not be given [ ]' with his duty as a Professor of Moral Philosophy.'

Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900), philosopher

MS notes in Nora Sidgwick's hand

Includes the words that Henry would like to have said over his grave 'if it is decided not to have the Church of England service': 'Let us commend to the love of God with silent prayer the soul of a sinful man who partly tried to do his duty. It is by his wish that I say over his grave these words and no more'. Note that this was 'written down May 17 1900'.

Verses 'adopted by Henry Sidgwick. from Tennyson's Palace of Art when he left the Church of England in 1869', beginning with the lines: 'Yet pull not down my minster towers that were/So gravely gloriously wrought'. Page headed 'Henry's Texts', including [biblical] quotations.

Page headed 'Re new edition of Ethics'. Henry's desire is that, if he is not able to finish the revision, The Methods of Ethics 'be put through the press by Miss [E..E. C.] Jones without excerpts [he has] clearly indicated in the book itself or [his] MS notes of lectures that an alteration is required'. Suggests also the addition of a brief explanatory preface.

Additional notes relate to his works and the possibility of their publication. Believes that some of his philosophical works in which he attempts to define the scope of philosophy and its relation to, for example, psychology, logic, history and sociology, are most suitable for publication and study. Refers to a course of lectures on Kant, Green and Spencer 'which will be [more] easily brought out'. Refers also to a course of lectures on epistemology, which was delivered with Sigwart's Logic as a text book, and believes that part of it might be worth publishing. Suggests that [James] Ward might recommend someone who would read these works in order to select the portions he thought worth publishing. Insists, however, that Ward should not spend time on the matter that could be more profitably devoted to his own work. Discusses the difficulties that might be encountered in the publishing of his philosophical lectures, and refers to the part concerned with the relation of metaphysics and epistemology. Refers also to 'a discussion of Külpe's use of the terms and another discussion on idealism and realism, 'which will be found in the bundle relating to Külpe. List of some of Henry's works.

Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900), philosopher

Letter from W.S. Jevons to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Sidgwick for sending him printed copies of Marshall's Theory of [Foreign] Trade. Declares his problems to be 'exceedingly ingenious and very important for throwing light on difficult points of pol[itical] econ[omy].' Refers to his own and Sidgwick's differing interpretations of one of Marshall's points regarding the method of diagrams and the method of symbols. States that he has 'for some time past been inquiring into the history of the mathematical treatment of Economics', and hopes eventually to publish his findings. Refers to the Recherches sur les Principes Mathematiques de la Theorie des Richesses by Augustin Cournot, which he believes to be 'a very beautiful piece of mathematical analysis applied to the laws of supply and demand'. Refers to an enclosed list (not included). Announces that he will refer to Professor Marshall's inquiries in the new edition of his Theory. Expresses his satisfaction at getting Sidgwick's ideas about his attack on Mill, but disagrees with him on a point in relation to Herbert Spencer. Claims that in Mill 'contradiction is of the essence of his method'. Hopes some day to complete his criticism and prove his assertions, but claims to be not equal to finishing all he undertakes.

Jevons, William Stanley (1835–1882) economist

Copy letter from Henry Sidgwick to Victoria Welby

Thanks Welby for sending him her two pamphlets [Ambiguities and Apparent Paradox], which he discusses. Declares that it is a difficult matter 'to persuade a plain man to go through the process necessary to attain precision of thought: it requires great literary skill in presenting the process.' Claims that he tried to do something of this sort in his Principles of Political Economy, but fears that he bored the readers. States that he would like to see Herbert Spencer's answer to Apparent Paradox. States that if she wants to call Locke as a witness 'it would be easy to find suitable quotations in Chap. IX of Book III of the Essay on Human Understanding, and that with regard to Bacon, there is Aphorism XV in the Novum Organum. Believes that modern instances are more impressive however.

Letter from J.R. Mozley to J.B. Mayor

Thanks Mayor for returning his MS. Claims that if he had been confident enough in his memory to serve Mayor's or Nora Sidgwick's purpose regarding 'the philosophical discussions at Trumpington' he would have answered him before. Is confused about dates, but states that he has little doubt that he first went to Professor Grote's house to listen to, and occasionally read, philosophical papers in the October term of 1863. States that the only other people who attended these meetings at this time were Henry Sidgwick, 'John Venn of Caius, and Pearson of St John's'. Describes the attributes of each of those who attended, and remarks that Sidgwick obviously preferred ethics to metaphysics, and recalls [Professor] Alfred Marshall emphasising his admiration of this side of Sidgwick very soon after he made his acquaintance. Refers to Sidgwick's opinion of Kant and Hegel, and to the intuitionalism 'which in the end he united with his utilitarianism'. Is uncertain as to whether he gave any measure of assent to the first fundametal proposition of 'Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysics'

Wishes that he could remember more of the actual papers that Sidgwick read to the Philosophical Society, which was, after Grote's death, called the Grote Society, but has the impression that 'they were tentatives towards the kind of line which he afterwards took in the Methods of Ethics'. Refers also to Sidgwick's attitude to metaphysics. Believes that J.S. Mill was the philosopher whom he always admired and trusted the most. Holds, however, that he changed his view of Mill between 1863 and 1873, citing his reaction to Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, and to Fitzjames Stephen's attack on Mill in Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.

Refers to Grote's view of ethics and metaphysics, and to his Treatise on the Moral Ideals, and to the similarities between him and Sidgwick. Refers also to other members of the society, such as Henry Jackson and Maurice. Recalls Sidgwick's good opinion of Venn, who was a great admirer of Mill, and names other members of the society, such as W. K. Clifford and T. W. Levin. Recalls also that when he [Mozley] went to Clifton in September 1864, Sidgwick wrote to somebody, referring to him as 'the first original a priori philosopher that has trod the streets of Cambridge for many a day'. Does not think that Herbert Spencer was ever a great favourite in the society, but had himself a great respect for him 'as the founder of the theory of evolution.' Adds that when 'the old crow, who could count up to five, but not beyond, once came before the Grote Society', Sidgwick 'was unkind enough to doubt his existence' and none of the rest of them could give evidence for him.

Mozley, John Rickards (1840-1931) educator and mathematician

Letter from Goldsworthy Lowes Dickinson to R. C. Trevelyan

13A Hanover Terrace Ladbroke Grove. - Is sceptical about the translation of his books into German. Sorry to hear that Trevelyan has had mumps; hopes he has now recovered. At heart is miserable about the state of Europe; distractions include dinner with Clive [Bell?] and [Ralph?] Hawtrey, and the new letters of Byron, which he discusses at length with comments on morality. Has also been reading the 'absurd' book [Home Life with Herbert Spencer]. Morgan [Forster] has returned, unhappy because he cannot write (with which Trevelyan will sympathise). Met Bertie [Russell] and his wife at the Sangers'; does not think he will like 'Mrs Bertie'. Mrs [Beatrice] Mayor's two plays [The Girl and the City and Thirty Minutes in a Street] were acted on Sunday [2 Apr 1922, at the Kingsway Theatre]; supposes they were not much of a success but he was interested by them, particularly that acted by her sister [Betty Potter]. Has had long walk with [Nathaniel] Wedd who is 'gallant' but not well; Dickinson sceptical about the psychoanalysis he is receiving. Sends best regards to Trevelyan and his hosts [the Berensons].

Copy letter from J. Bland to J. G. Frazer

"The Clock House" Shepperton. Dated 25th March (1911) - Will be happy to be quoted in Frazer's forthcoming book [about substitutes for executions in China?], but asks to be allowed to rewrite his former note; will look through Herbert Spencer's 'Descriptive Sociology', ('that mountain of ill-assorted facts and opinions'), and asks if he has looked through Arthur Smith's 'Chinese Characteristics'.

Letter from John Herschel

JH and Margaret Herschel will be delighted to see WW. He is very pleased to hear that WW is editing Jones' posthumous works - JH has some sheets of RJ's lectures which went to the press but were never published. He is grieved to hear that George Peacock is so ill. 'What a queer book that is of Herbert Spencer!'

Letter from Augustus De Morgan to J. W. Lubbock

90 G.S. - Asks for his opinion on different modes of expression in treating the Differential Calculus. Amongst other examples, he points out 'we cannot talk of total partial diff: coeff: Would complete partial diff: coeff: do?' Thanks him for his book on comets, and notes that the tides are yet undone.