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Paul, Charles Kegan (1828-1902) publisher
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Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Thanks her for her letter. Announces that he has just resigned from his assistant tutorship and has informed the authorities that he intends to resign his fellowship very soon. Remarks that it is not impossible that they may appoint him lecturer in spite of his actions, but he does not expect them to do so. Advises her that the matter is a secret. Reports that the Master 'expressed himself very kindly about [Henry] in communicating [his] resignation to the College.' Remarks that everyone is very kind, and believes that if he is not reappointed 'it will not be from want of goodwill, but from a conviction that the interests of the College do not allow it.'. Claims to be happy, and believes that he has done the right thing.

Asks her to tell Arthur that he thinks they had on the whole, successful meetings at the Free Christian Union. States that Paul's sermon was very good, and is misrepresented in the Pall Mall Gazette. Reports that he has been staying with Mrs Clough, whom he likes 'very much' and that 'the new book' [The Poems and Prose Remains of Arthur Hugh Clough] is due out in about two weeks. Announces that he will come down to his mother about the end of the month or the following month. States that if she has Miss [Alice?] Horton staying with her, or if there is any other particular reason, he does not mind coming, however his hay fever is.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Asks her to try to locate a book, [Pneumatologie:] Des Esprits... by Mirville, which was lent to him by Miss Attersoll, and which he gave to his mother 'some time ago'. Explains that Attersoll has written to him asking for it. Wonders whether she is 'a favourable subject for a convert', and intends to try to instil 'a little "Spiritualism" into her by recommending her another book or two of the same kind.' Reports that they expect their Greek professor to be elected the following day [Benjamin Hall Kennedy was chosen]. Refers to the fact that William is to write one of the Reform essays, and that it is advertised in the Pall Mall Gazette. Informs her that Mr and Mrs Paul are to come 'some time in the week after Easter.' Recommends a vendor of Hungarian wines, and suggests three labels. Hopes that Mr Martin is getting better, and reports that he went to see him the previous day. Admits that he is quite worried about his friend Cowell, whose father has just died very suddenly.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Reports that the portfolio has come and is beautiful. Hopes to come to visit her 'on Saturday week', or before that. Announces that the Pauls are to come on Easter Monday, and will stay for the week, and that he himself has to go back to Cambridge on the Monday afterwards. States that his friend Sedley Taylor is going to Rugby around Good Friday to stay with [Rev.?] C. J. Smith, and asks her to be hospitable to him if he turns up at the house. Thanks her for the portfolio. Hopes that she is well and has enjoyed her visits.

Reports that he is 'tolerably busy', and that he goes to see Roden Noel on the following Saturday - 'the day of the [boat] race'. Remarks that it is thought that Cambridge is to lose again. Reports that Tawney is coming to England that summer to be married. Reports that he has been in correspondence with his uncle Robert 'about a curious historical question connected with the founding of Shipton School', whose Master 'is bound to pray to the Virgin Mary every afternoon.' Mentions that he met a lady the previous day at [Rampride] who said that she knew his mother and Mrs Plunkett.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Announces that he intends spending Thursday night in London, and will come down to her in the afternoon of Good Friday. Discusses the suggestion made by William to invite his friend Robert Williams - a newly elected fellow of Merton - to Rugby. Opposes the idea on the grounds of its 'extreme oddness', without having made further acquaintance. Announces that Mr and Mrs Paul are to come on Easter Monday.

Postcard from Henry Sidgwick to F.W.H. Myers

Announces that he thinks he need not dine at the Savile Club on Wednesday, and that he has arranged with [Charles Kegan?] Paul to 'drop in there about 6.15, see O[ ], and ask him to one séance', after which they can decide if they will go on with him. Tells Myers to arrange for him as he finds fitting.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from Roden Noel's]:- Asks her, on receipt of the letter, to send off the box he left, ' Parcel delivery.' Announces that he shall be in Cambridge on Saturday night and that he should like to have it by Monday. Refers to his having had 'a complete holiday for a month', something he has 'not had for some time'; supposes holidays 'do one good' but always feels as if he should not be taking them. Still, has enjoyed himself, and declares that he 'had some good talk at Bailie.' Indicates his desire to invite Paul to come to Rugby. Reports that he saw Dr Rowland Williams [at Bailie/Rugby?], and believes that he is 'quite sincere in thinking that he is one of the very few orthodox clergymen in England now.' Reports that he found Cowell looking much better than he expected, and trusts now that the disease of the heart 'will not prove rapidly fatal'; does not know whether there is any hope of his 'ultimate recovery'. Announces that he himself is not well, 'owing to the sea-air having proved too strong a tonic as it always does with [him]'. States that he is pleased to hear that his pupil has [left] Cambridge for a term and gone to Jamaica, so that he shall be responsible for his being '[plucked] in [ ].'

Letter from John James Tayler to Henry Sidgwick

Had intended to write to Sidgwick in relation to the Sub Committee of the Free Christian Union, of which he was appointed a member with Kegan Paul and Sidgwick, when he received a note from Mr Edward Enfield, informing him that Sidgwick and Kegan Paul would be in London from 5 to 9 January. Replied to Enfield suggesting Friday 8th at 4pm as a suitable time for meeting. Declares that this 'will leave ample time for some [ ] [ ] conference between the members of the subcommittee [Motion] to the matter on which they were to offer some suggestions to the General Committee. Asks whether Sidgwick and Kegan Paul would come out to the Limes, Hampstead on Wednesday 6 January to take dinner with him at 6pm and spend the evening in discussion.

Puts forward to the three main points to be considered; whether a series of public lectures or a volume of essays would be the most effective way of acting on social opinion 'in favour of Catholic views of Religion'; the general aim and character of the subjects that such a series should embrace; and the men who should be invited to join in such an undertaking. Believes that the writers or speakers should be free from any appearance of denominational and sectarian influence and that a large majority of them should be 'members of the Broad Church', with some representatives from the nonconformist churches. Would like to secure the aid of Mr Goldwin Smith, and states his wish to propose the name of Mr M[ark] Pattison, whose pamphlet on Oxford Education he has just read. Refers to Mr Jowett also, whose cooperation he would also appreciate. Believes that they should confine their subject to 'the broad ground of a practical and spiritual [Chris]tianity. Discusses the role of Christianity in the world, and declares that their schools, universities and churches need to be brought under the influence of a more spiritual and Catholic Christianity. Suggests some topics for discussion: 'A Reform of the Doctrinal [Formularies] of the Church; the Necessity of a Scientific Theology; on Intercourse between different Religious Denominations; on the Limits of State Action in Ecclesiastical Organisation.' Refers to the [ ] of the Irish Church.

Would like the benefit of Sidgwick's mature reflection on the above topics. Hopes to have returned to London by the evening of Monday 4 January. Gives the address to which HS should send any communication during the following ten days.

Tayler, John James (1797–1869) Unitarian minister

Letter from H.B. Wilson to C. Kegan Paul.

Reports that Paul's letter of 30 November has been forwarded to him [in Cheltenham]. Claims that he would be very happy to be associated with the gentlemen whose names Paul mentioned, but fears the F[ree] C[hristian] U[nion] being turned into 'a new [ ] denomination.' Also maintains that he is so busy with other affairs that he would not be able to do much in relation to the matter. Expresses his regret at seeing 'these men dropping off', but is [no?] longer so hopeful as before of an enlargement of the Church of England from within, and thinks that 'perhaps the more vigorously it is attacked from without the better.' Presumes that the Bishop of Ely [Harold Browne] 'cannot relieve [Mr] Clarke of his orders.' Mentions to deprivation of orders and to Parliament's role in the matter. Refers to some twenty-five years previously when a member of the House of Commons brought in a bill for enabling the giving up of Orders, and Wilson wrote to Gladstone about it, but the latter 'was not then favourable to a relaxation'. Claims that in the case of the Church of England, which is publicly endowed, 'the regulation of the legal obligations of ordination is quite as much within the competence of the of those of subscription'. Agrees with Sidgwick about the articles in Paul's book. Refers to its form, and believes that the subject of Public Worship [in one of the essays] 'will prove a very arduous one.'

Wilson, Henry Bristow (1803-1888) theologian

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Reports that he has been very busy in relation to the vacant [Knightbridge] professorship; considers becoming a candidate himself, but does not think that he has much chance of being successful, and believes that if he puts himself forward he may harm the chances of another man [J. H. Stirling] who he believes has more claim to it. Was shocked at Maurice's death. Reports that he has been travelling about a lot since the end of the previous term; has been to Bournemouth, stayed with the Pauls at Bailie, and also at Freshwater, where he 'smoked a pipe with the Laureate'. Declares that Tennyson was 'exceedingly kind', and that he and Symonds 'had a most interesting conversation with him. Adds that Miss Thackeray was also there, 'most delightful of authoresses'. Hopes to go to Rugby on the Saturday of the following week. Reports that he has just seen Robertson, who is going to Harrow, 'but with eyes halfregretful fixed on Rugby'. Asks to be remembered to the Temples.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Reports that he is spending 'some pleasant days' [in Wimborne] with the Pauls, and announces that he intends to go to Freshwater on Tuesday or Wednesday, where he expects to meet Symonds, and to stay there until Saturday, and then return to Cambridge. Regrets that she cannot come there, and undertakes to go down to Rugby 'for a Sunday.' Asks her to tell W[illiam] that he will send the twenty francs 'in any way that he likes.' Is certain that 'the introductions [see 99/194] will bore' William, but explains that he could not refuse them; suggests that William 'may like to see the archaeologist at Palermo [Antonino Salinas]'.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to F.W.H. Myers

Refers to Myers' letter. Claims that he 'cannot conceive that any of Time's changes can make [him] forget the pleasure which it has given [him]...' Tells him to do what he thinks is right in relation to [Spirits], and assures him that he will cooperate. Announces that [Kegan] Paul is not coming to stay with him, but is going to stay in King's [College], and that he has invited him to breakfast on Sunday. Asks Myers to be there. Adds that he shall meet 'Mrs R. G. on Tuesday at Venn's, 'and should have embraced her in the bonds etc' if Myers had not warned him

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to F.W.H. Myers

Tells him not to worry about lodgings, as Sidgwick is 'after all a Philosopher': expresses his preference to sleep over his desire to save money. States that he 'will not fail on Wednesday at 2.30.' Reports that [Charles Kegan] Paul wishes him to dine at the Savile Club to meet a friend of his called O[ ], who is a barrister and would like to join in in their spiritualistic investigations. Thinks that Myers ought to come along 'in the interests of the Cause'. Asks for Myers' opinion on the matter, and adds that O[ ] 'is a little odd.' Reports that he met James Hinton in Oxford, who said that he also would like to join. Tells Myers to settle for Sidgwick to dine at 'S.M.T.' if he likes.

Letter from J.B. Payne to Henry Sidgwick

Explains that he is a bad correspondent. Refers to '[Charles Kegan] Paul's kind attempt to furnish [him] with a pupil to take abroad', and reports that the whole thing has fallen through 'from the outrageous conduct of the boy who appears to require a divine rather than a human Mentor.' Refers to their planned meeting on the following Saturday. Mentions that his rooms at Downing have been given up to a freshman, and asks Sidgwick if he thinks that there are any vacant rooms in Trinity College that he could occupy 'from Saturday till Thursday'. Reports that he has been abroad for two months during the summer 'with a very uninteresting pupil'. Expresses regret that he had not made more of his 'Cambridge chances'. Professes to be 'not at all happy', because of '[a] load of debt on the one side, and a cruel burden of acquired laziness on the other'. Claims to have 'given up the useless and heartbreaking search for a religion', and has left behind him 'ontology, sceptical conservatism, and many other bad things.' Confesses that the letter is being written late at night. Refers to their Cambridge friendship, and to the fact that he has always had friends who thought better of me than he thought he deserved. [Incomplete]

Payne, John Burnell (1838-1869) clergyman and art critic

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to A.J. Patterson

Regrets that his influence with London editors is limited to Macmillan, but asks Patterson to send him A Martyr. Is certain that Frederic Macmillan will give him advice as to what to do with it. Undertakes to ask Kegan Paul, in default of Macmillan's advice. States that the only book [by a friend of his] he had published by Kegan Paul had little commercial success. Suggests that a publisher might think it more advisable to publish the two tales, A Martyr and Noble Rest together. Recalls his 'very pleasant week in Buda-Pest', and sends greetings to Beothy, Lanczy, Medveczky, Pulszky, W. Bal[ ] and others.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from Göttingen):- Explains that he cannot go home; when his three months abroad are over he must pay a visit to [Kegan] Paul at the end of the vacation. Promises that she will see lots of him when he does go home. Reports that his progress in Arabic is slower than he had hoped. Has no doubt that Arthur will be happy. Hopes that it will not take her too long to get her new house. Imagines that she will see G[raham] D[akyns] before this letter reaches her. Refers to their exploration of the Harz region. Reports that his health is generally good.

Apart from Dakyns, has not seen any other 'friend or acquaintance', which he is generally satisfied with as he 'hate[s] to carry England about with [him] everywhere'. Declares his fondness for Göttingen, and for the simplicity of German life; imagines his mother suggesting that this is 'as a change... and to add zest to the luxuries of Cambridge', and half-agrees, but says that if forced out of England it would be only a 'half-banishment' if he had Germany to go to. Does not want this, though, as he values 'the English freedom of action as high, if not higher, than the German freedom of thought' and says that in England they have more 'real liberality' than in Germany. Excludes the 'half-educated Englishman whom the daily papers are written to suit' from this, and says he sometimes thinks that kind of man 'the most conceited idiot on the face of the earth'.

Refers to his mother's request for stamps, and informs her that the youngest Miss Benfey is a stamp-collector and has given to him thirty-seven stamps of the different German states. He would like his mother to procure and send the three different kinds of envelope stamps.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from Lille]:- Announces that he has left 'Arcadia [Göttingen]', and is spending the night 'in a country where they chatter a superficial language called French.' Discusses his liking for the German people, who, he believes, 'have attained the end of civilization i.e. intellectual and aesthetic development without the usual concommitent disadvantages of civilization i.e. luxury and ceremony'. Says Professor Ewald has devoted much of his time to him, and has refused to take any payment. Attended a meeting of philologers at Hanover, which was 'not bad fun'; spent his time with the 'Orientalist section, who are a sociable lot'. Objects however to German state dinners, which are very long drawn out because the speeches go on between the courses, and comments on the amount of wine consumed at the dinner he attended.

Reports that he has not learnt very much Arabic. States that Professor Ewald is not complimentary but consoles him by saying that he knows more than most Englishmen; his other Professor [Wüstenfeld] is much politer, 'but then he is at once good natured and shy'.. Praises the German people once again. Mentions that Professor Benfey is one of the founders of Comparative Philology.

Says that the King of Hanover would have asked to be remembered to her 'had he thought of it, as it was he only asked about the state of Hebrew learning in the English Universities'; he was 'on the whole very amiable and seemed to take a pleasure in talking English'. Gives the address of C.K. Paul in Dorsetshire, in case his mother intends to write to him before 18 October. Announces that he is bringing the [German] stamps to her, and mentions that she never sent him the envelope stamps. Remarks that stamp collections are beginning to have a mercantile value 'just like the Dutch tulips'.

Hopes that Arthur will have got his fellowship by the time this letter reaches her, and asks her to ask him what he is going to do about the Club and whether he has communicated his [ ] to W.G. Clark.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Reports that he had 'a most delightful visit to Dorsetshire'. Tells her that she may tell Arthur 'that the mesmerizing did not come to much', as '[Charles Kegan] Paul did not succeed in getting Cowell any further than [Henry] had done, i.e. into a partial trance.' Reports that he felt his patriotism revive 'among the chalk downs and rich autumnal parks.' Remarks that he was surprised to find that Mrs Paul, 'who has written two or three tolerably popular novels is a rather quiet shy silent person - though very thoughtful and sensible when she does speak.'

Encloses the stamps [not included] of which he spoke in previous letters, and agrees with her as to the best way of getting the others. Announces that he will study the [Robert?] Browning, and that he is setting to work, although he does not feel so much inclined for reading as he should after a holiday. Asks his mother to give his love to his aunt [Elizabeth Lace], and states that he is glad that she is going to see her. Asks when William is going to be at Rugby at Christmas, and asks if he may bring a friend or two some time in the holidays. Understands that Arthur will be 'Europeanizing.' Observes that Mr Martin seems much better, although he looks ten years older. Hopes to see William in the middle of term. States that he does not like the moral and intellectual atmosphere at Cambridge any better for having been at Göttingen, or at least its effects on him; says however that 'the great lesson' he has learned in Germany is 'the necessity and duty of steady work, and one can do that anywhere'.

Reports that he is reading all kinds of books. Asks if she gets books now from a club, and if so, recommends the article on Poland in Vacation Tourists [and Notes on Travel].

Letter from T.H. Huxley to Henry Sidgwick

Reports that he has rectified his [concurrence] and sent a letter back to Mr Kegan Paul. Claims that he 'never knew where the securities were' and is glad they are to be in Sidgwick's custody. Trusts that they shall meet on the 24th [of October].

Huxley, Thomas Henry (1825–1895), biologist and science educationist

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Does not think that he shall come to Rugby before the end of 'the half.' Believes that his hay fever will not leave him before the end of July, and does not think that he will go anywhere until it clears up. Intends to stay in Cambridge and study, and if unwell, to 'fly off to the seaside.' Says that he studies best in vacation time, not simply because there is more time, but also because he has a 'restive imagination' which he cannot 'harness' when his mind is 'filled with all manner of College and University matters'.

Wishes to visit his schoolmaster friends at Eton, Harrow, and so on, towards the end of July. Asks if she has heard lately about Tryphosa [Lace, his cousin]. Does not quite understand what she will do by going to see her. Asks how his uncle [Francis] feels about it. Reports that the Donisthorpes are there [in Cambridge], but claims that he has been so busy that he has hardly been able to see anything of them. Remarks that he thinks 'the youth' [Wentworth] is clever.

Can tell Mrs Gretton amuses his mother, and remarks that he likes people who are unlike other people in their ways. Agrees with his mother about 'the '"foreignness" of [Mrs Gretton's] manière d'être' but observes that 'it is not only in the "sunny south" one finds that expansiveness', adding that the Germans have a good deal of it; sometimes thinks it is the 'more natural state' than English reserve, but says that 'when it is affected it is very odious'. Declares that he likes [Charles Kegan?] Paul very much. States that he finds that he has lost his paper about the Arundel Portfolios.

Letter from O. Browning to Nora Sidgwick

Points out two mistakes in Henry Sidgwick: a Memoir; one being on page 115, which states that Kegan Paul was Rector of Bailie, Wimborne. Explains that Bailie was the name of the town in which he lived, and that he was actually Rector of Sturminster Marshall. Also points out that Nora's brother Frank Balfour died on the Aiguille Blanche, and not on the slopes of Mont Blanc.

Browning, Oscar (1837-1923) historian and educational reformer

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from C. Kegan Paul's home]:- Reports that he is playing chess with Cowell , and is enjoying himself as much as he can in the rain, which has prevented him from seeing much of the scenery or places of general interest in the neighbourhood. Declares that he has been promised a visit to Corfe Castle. Announces that he returns to Cambridge on the following Saturday 'to read hard for a fortnight if possible'; criticises his own idleness and lack of 'resolution', saying this is the 'second Long Vacation [he has] frittered away pursuing study as a vain shadow".

Refers to his time spent at the Lakes, the enjoyment of which was overshadowed by the death of 'poor B. Young'. States that Edward Young was one of their party; he was 'in rather bad health', and 'got a few agonized lines from George.' Wonders as to the imprudence of the expedition, with regard to accidents; remarks that one only hears of Englishmen and Russians being killed, and not Germans and Frenchmen. Returns to the subject of the book Initials [by Jemima von Tautphoeus] which, he believes, is a caricature. Confirms that he will see her in the beginning of October. Asks her to send his greetings to the Ch[ ], and to give his love to Fanny Green if she sees her.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

States that he has been at Trinity College about a week, trying to write an article, but claims that he has been ill and shall probably be delayed. Does not think that solitary life agrees with his constitution, but clings to it because he believes that it helps him to concentrate his mind. Declares that he enjoyed his holiday very much, 'particularly the three weeks at the Lake [with G. O. Trevelyan and Edward Young].' Remarks that although he was happy in Dorsetshire, 'it was very melancholy being with poor Cowell', who is quite ill.

Reminds his mother of her invitation to [Charles Kegan] Paul to come to Rugby, and announces that he has asked him to come the following Easter. Does not know whether he will bring Mrs Paul or not. Asks her to send a volume of Fichte, and any books with library marks on them. Hopes to come to visit her on 3 October for a week. Explains that that is the day the Union Library opens and he wants to get some books 'before the country clergy have gone off with them all. Announces that it is thought that J. B. Mayor will be the new Professor of Moral Philosophy.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

Refers to [Charles Kegan] Paul's intended visit at Easter. States that he has to go up to Cambridge on the Monday [after Easter] to examine. Intends to pay a visit during Passion Week, and shall probably join her 'either just before of just after Easter Sunday.' Declares that he lives in expectation of 'the portfolio and [ ].' Promises to write to let her know when it arrives.

Asks if she has sent off 'the "de Mirville [Pneumatologie]" to Miss Attersoll' Reports that he has been corresponding with the latter on the subject, and is 'trying to instil into her some sound views on the subject of spiritualism'. Reports on a book that has recently appeared on the English Constitution, 'which is lively enough to interest people in the subject who have not previously given much attention to politics' and is 'entirely free from party spirit': The English Constitution by W. Bagehot. Declares that the two best books he has read for years on politics, are the latter and Grant Duff's Studies in European Politics. In relation to novels, refers to The Village on the Cliff [by Anne Isabella Thackeray] which he deems 'first-rate'. Claims that he is busy at present with University business. Sends his love to all at Wellington College, and refers to the fact that 'they have got a Schol[arship] at University Coll[ege].'

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from Gower Street]:- Announces that he is again in London, 'intending to work and see anything that is to be seen in the way of mediums.' States that he may 'fly to Cambridge.' Remarks that there is now one there in London that he can see 'without wasting a great deal of time.' Reports that Hales is in London, but he feels that it would be premature to call on him. Declares that if he feels intolerably lonely 'after the pleasant society at Ffestiniog' he may be more inclined to go to Cambridge, but believes that he shall soon be too busy to do that. Describes the scenery of Ffestiniog, and his experiences there, including a climb up Moel Siabod.

Reports that he has not been able to pay his visit to [Charles Kegan] Paul as he did not feel that he had the time to spare. Claims that life is somewhat difficult for him at present, 'full of doubts and problems', and that solitude is good for him, 'though rather depressing'. Quotes some lines of Aubrey de Vere. Declares that he is reading English history, and is astonished to find 'what a want there is of a good history of England before the Tudors.' Claims that the best seems to be in German. Sends the letter to Wellington College, as his mother did not say in her last letter where she was going. Hopes that Mary is progressing as well as she could expect. Asks when Arthur is to return to Rugby, and when she intends to return there.

Forgets whether she has read Goldwin Smith's lectures; 'Three Statesmen or some such name.' Declares that the last lecture, which is on Pitt, seems to him better written than anything else of his. Asks after William.

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to his mother

[Sent from Clifton]:- Announces that he has just arrived in Bristol, having left the Pauls the previous day. Reports that Mrs Paul asked after his mother. States that he enjoyed his visit there and in London. Remarks that Paul has got very nice children. Reports that Mrs Symonds has just had a little girl [Madge], but that he has been assured that he is not in the way. Refers to his mother's last letter in which she had discussed views on religious subjects. Believes that 'English religious society is going through a great crisis...and it will probably become impossible soon to conceal from any body the extent to which rationalistic views are held, and the extent of their deviation from traditional opinion.' Refers to the fact that the Ritualists 'are determined to burn altar lights after all.' Would like the Church 'to include the ritualists'. Reports that Noel has brought out a volume of poems, which he undertakes to send to her. Asks her to tell Arthur that he has 'nearly evolved both the major and the minor premiss [sic] of [their] practical syllogism', and that 13 February is the 'Ad Eundem day', and that he is to write to Reynolds.