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Additional Manuscripts c Sidgwick, Henry (1838–1900), philosopher
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Letter from Arthur Sidgwick to Nora Sidgwick.

Returns the obituary of Henry Sidgwick [included: 106/1B], which he describes as 'a very extraordinary production, and yet touching.' Supposes that 'her feeling pressed for utterance and she [Meta Benfey] thought it was so long ago that it did not matter'. Has translated the exordium and sent it to Minnie; thinks that he had said to Nora the previous night that he would send the translation of the Benfey article to her, but failed to send it, and so sent it to Minnie. With envelope addressed to Nora Sidgwick, postmarked 28 Nov 1906

Sidgwick, Arthur (1840–1920), educationist and classical scholar

Letter from Lord Acton to Nora Sidgwick

Writes on the death of Henry Sidgwick, and expresses his, Lady Acton's and others' sympathies on her 'dreadful loss'. Declares that he has lost 'the best of friends and colleagues...' Refers to the sympathy and admiration he felt for Henry in relation the manner in which he bore his illness. Reports that [Andrew?] Forsyth spent an hour discussing things with Sidgwick at Jebb's, 'and had no idea till long after that anything was wrong.' States that they were not aware of the gravity of the situation until three weeks earlier, when he met Nora with Arthur J. Balfour.

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg (1834-1902) 1st Baron Acton, historian

Letter from Francis Galton to Henry Sidgwick

Gratefully acknowledges Sidgwick having ordered the 'Health Statistics' for him, which arrived the previous day. Discusses the idea of encouraging 'honor girls' into early marriages, and to have large families. Contends that the offspring of such women would 'on the average be hereditarily gifted', and asserts his desire 'to swamp the produce of the ordinary proletariat by a better stock.' Expresses his wish that a 'dower-fund, as an equivalent to fellowships' be established. Proposes that a selection process be instituted, involving a board of women selecting successful candidates from among 'honor women not exceeding 23 years of age, who had achieved such and such college success'. Suggests that a sum of £50 be paid to such women on their marriage 'and £25 on the birth of each and every living child'. Maintains that 'the payment on the birth of each child would maintain the college tie and interest, and such other indirect and favorably effect might be anticipated.' Proposes that 'four such exhibitions ... annually and for perpetuity might be provided for, if their probable utility was vouched for by sensible men after due consideration.' Asks Sidgwick to give the matter some thought.

Galton, Sir Francis (1822-1911) Knight, biostatistican, human geneticist, and eugenicist

Letter from M. F. Latham to Nora Sidgwick

She and her family 'always considered Mr Sidgwick, when [they] were all young together, as the most lively, interested talker' they knew. Remembers a visit he made to them as an undergraduate [in 1858], when he stayed some time, 'joined in everything the family did, and... made everything he joined in more amusing'. He suggested they 'should get up Tableau vivants'', proposing 'Sleeping Beauty' for her, and saying that Miss Tawney - her sister-in-law - 'would do excellently for the beauty.'

Relates another incident during the same visit in which she went to the drawing room to help her mother receive some callers 'and saw at the other end of the room Mr. Sidgwick asleep in an easy chair, dressed in an Afghan costume of white felt belonging to [her] father, and wearing the fur cap belonging to it', with a sleeping kitten asleep on top. Declares that he was such a charming visitor, 'always amusing and always making himself at home with [them].'

Latham, Marianne Frances (1839-1926) née Bernard, mistress of Girton

Letter from E. Enfield to Henry Sidgwick

Claims that he is having difficulty in collecting 'the opinions and emendations of all interested in the welfare of the Univers[ity]. Mentions that he gave Mr Martineau a copy of Sidgwick's alterations, of which he approves and adds 'a suggestion of another'. Asks Sidgwick to look at it and return it to him with comments. Mentions that he has received Sidgwick's note and enclosure that morning, and assures him that he will introduce the corrections mentioned

Enfield, Edward (1811-1880) philanthropist

Letter from Lord Acton to Henry Sidgwick.

On books recommended for reading in relation to medieval ethics, including Gass' Geschichte der Christlichen Ethik, a volume of lectures by Neander, and Bettmann's Geschichte der Christichen Seite. Gives opinion as to the merits of each. Recommends especially Histoire des auteurs ecclesiastiques in 22 vols. by Ceillier, and 'the new edition' of Havreau. Mentions also Winter's book on the Ethics of the School of Alexandria and Jourdain's book on St Thomas. In relation to Hartmann's Phenomenology, claims it to be 'rude and spare' in the treatment of medieval theory, and comments that Sidgwick's 'enemy' Guyau 'knows nothing about it.' Mentions that his inability to verify the titles of his suggestions is due to the fact that he is ill in bed at the time of writing

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg (1834-1902) 1st Baron Acton, historian

Letter from Eleanor Mildred Balfour to Mary Sidgwick

Thanks her for her letter. Is unable to express her own happiness, and how much she wishes to be a good wife to Henry and a good daughter to her; looks forward to getting to know her.

Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1845-1936) Principal of Newnham College Cambridge

Letter from R.I. Palgrave to Henry Sidgwick

Reports that he made the enquiry of which they spoke 'from the [ ] of the Colonial Office respecting Government by Companies', and encloses his reply [not included], which reached him on the day on which he writes. Remarks it to be 'a curious thing that after [England] has, as many thought entirely shaken itself clear of this form of dual [Govt.] after the E[ast] I[ndia] Co. had been made an end of - that it should have slid back again into this old [favour] and sanctioned the establishment of so many new companies of the old plan.' Asks Sidgwick to return the 'Gazette copy of the [ ] [Borneo] [Charter]' and Meade's letter when he has finished with them. States that he has written to thank the latter. Asks Sidgwick to write a short article 'on the subject' for his Dictionary [of Political Economy]. Claims that when he has had to write on any special subject that 'requires care', he has never minded writing a short article on it first, 'as the doing so seems to help to clear one's mind'. Refers to his meeting with Sidgwick in Cambridge, and invites him and Mrs Sidgwick to visit himself and his wife during the summer.

Palgrave, Sir Robert Harry Inglis (1827-1919), knight, banker and economist

Copy letter from Henry Sidgwick to Lady Victoria Welby-Gregory

Typewritten copy of letter dated 31 January 1896. Apologises for not having written to her sooner with reference to her article in Mind on ' Significs'; explains that he has been very busy. Adds that he has delayed to write partly because he does not have any useful suggestions on the question of 'a Paper for the International Congress of Psychology'. Declares that he believes that the question 'is mainly one for logicians rather than psychologists and that it will not be very easy to find a mode of treatment which will make it an altogether appropriate topic for a Psychological Congress'. Suggests ' Interpretation as a psychological process' or some similar phrase as the title of her paper. Observes that she does not include psychology 'on p.25 - among the list of studies that has a peculiar meaning term correlated with it', and remarks that he thinks that there would be 'some interest in working out the characteristics of Interpretation as a psychological process'.

Gregory, Lady Victoria Alexandrina Maria Louisa Welby- (1837-1912) Lady Welby, philosopher

Letter from C. Kegan Paul to Henry Sidgwick

Expresses his pleasure at receiving Sidgwick's letter, and at the news that the latter had joined the Free Christian Union. Reports that the anniversary meeting is that day or the next, but he is unable to attend. Hopes that Sidgwick will go. Expresses his anxiety in relation to the Church of England. Refers to Tyndale [John Tyndall?]'s theory on spiritualism, and observes that the Physical Science men 'seem to leave out of sight the fact that if they have no emotional side to their own nature, it is a very important element in the nature of most people.'

Explains that he has been too busy during the previous two months to read very much material that was not connected with his work. Declares a book by 'Miss Ogle', [Lady Verney] Stone Edge, to be 'a pretty and restful novel'. Refers also to The Lost Love, and to the fact that people say that it was written by a Lady Verney. States that [ ] B[ ] has taken up much of his time, because he has been reviewing him for the Theological Review. Asks Sidgwick if he has read a book called the French Revolution by Heinrich von Sybel [1867] History of the French Revolution].

Announces that he is going abroad with three or four of his pupils, and that Mr Paul is accompanying them; they start on Monday 3 August for the Rhine as far as Constance, and then maybe go by Munich and Prague to Dresden, where they intend to stay a fortnight, and get home about 10 September. Between that date and 12 October he hopes that Sidgwick will be able to visit them, and suggests that it would be nice if he came to Dresden. Tells him to come before 3 August if he is unable to come after their return, but is unsure when they will be able to receive him. Explains that one of his sisters is to be married, and is coming to stay, along with her fiancé. Tells Sidgwick to let him know when he can come.

Paul, Charles Kegan (1828-1902) publisher

Letter from Lord Acton to Henry Sidgwick

On the contents and title of Sidgwick's proposed chapter in the Cambridge Modern History. Proposes that it should be called 'Political Philosophy'. Refers to other related chapters of the work, such as that on Machiavelli and another on revolutionary theory in the sixteenth century. Also refers to disagreement between himself and Sidgwick on some aspects of the thinking of Bacon, Descartes and Hobbes.

Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg (1834-1902) 1st Baron Acton, historian

Letter from [Mandell Creighton] to Henry Sidgwick

Informs Sidgwick that the holidays have given him time to read the E[ncyclopedia Britannica?], which he had sent to him. Remarks that his analysis of 'Public Morality' 'clears up several matters'. Discusses the principles on which a historian ought to judge the actions of a statesman, claims that Acton 'does not face the difference...between the principles on which a statesman may act and those aforementioned historian's principles', and warns against the critic introducing his own presuppositions. Remarks that Sidgwick had not touched on the moral influence on the historian's generation of a public war, and uses Bismarck to illustrate his point. Agrees with Sidgwick about 'clerical veracity', and remarks that it is 'curious how the moral sense of the community has practically ruled out Rashdall's view.' States that he is enjoying 'this place' very much.

Creighton, Mandell (1843–1901) Bishop of London

Letter from James S. Rutherford to Nora Sidgwick

Apologises for what he feels to be 'an apparent intrusion into matters too private and personal.' Explains that he has read Henry Sidgwick's works, such as The Methods of Ethics, Outlines of the History of Ethics for English Readers and Philosophy, Its Scope and Relations as a student of philosophy at Queen's College in Belfast. States that the first result of studying The Methods of Ethics was to fill him 'with a reverence towards the moral and intellectual nature of its author', and claims that there is no man to whose opinion on any question which he investigated he would attach so much importance and authority. Claims that the works also inspired another feeling in him 'one of a purely emotional nature, something, perhaps, akin to love, if that were possible towards one whom one has never met.' States that as the feeling has grown stronger he has wished to know more about Henry's life and character, but has only been able to secure two short biographical sketches - 'one in Bryce's Contemporary Studies, and a short obituary notice in Frederic Myers Fragments of Prose and Poetry'. Wonders whether a memoir might have been printed for private circulation and if so suggests that she might send it to him.

Letter from Horace Darwin to Henry Sidgwick

Asks Sidgwick to put his name down [as one who supports the setting up of a Syndicate to inquire into the issue of allowing of alternatives for one of the classical languages in the Previous Examination], and as agreeing with the letter signed by Sidgwick and others [see 101/99;102].

Darwin, Sir Horace (1851–1928) Knight, civil engineer and manufacturer of scientific instruments

Letter from Alice M. Jackson to Nora Sidgwick

Only heard of Henry's serious illness the previous day, when she was in Cambridge for the afternoon; would like to send her sympathy to Nora now. Hopes that his operation has proved successful. Is sorry for the Cambridge students who will miss Henry's university lectures; believes that he was the most just critic she has ever heard, and remarks that in Moral Science 'people seem particularly apt to be impatient of the opinions of others.' Is sure that she is only one of many Cambridge students who remember with gratitude the time and trouble which Henry spent upon his classes and the help which he was always ready to give to individuals. Will be eager for news of Henry's progress, but hopes that some Newnham students will keep her up to date.

Letter from J.P. Mahaffy to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to a concept in Greek that they had been discussing, and states that 'there is a curious contrast between the [constant] mention of it as a danger, and the rarity of its actual occurrence'. Gives examples of some passages: the '[Heliactic] oath in Demosthenes against Aristocrates'; another passage [some Greek quoted], which 'specially alludes to it as a danger [about the middle of the speech]'. States that the case of Leontini is a practical case, 'but even here it was stopped'; 'points to the rest of argument used for it. New citizens were enrolled, and then came the demand.' Tells Sidgwick that he will inform him when he finds more. Refers to the death of the Provost of Trinity College, Dublin; 'a very leading public figure in Ireland. It is most fortunate that this govt. is not....' [Incomplete]

Mahaffy, Sir John Pentland (1839-1919) Knight, Provost of Trinity College Dublin

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

States that he has read Sidgwick's criticism of his book [The Science of Ethics], and expresses his satisfaction in having 'a candid and generous critic'. Observes that most of the points at issue between the two would require a treatise instead of a letter. Refers to pain and pleasure, and to how conduct is determined by one or the other. Admits that he 'could have obviated the criticism by a more careful articulation of the logical framework.' Refers to Sidgwick's contention that he exaggerates the novelty of the evolutionist theory 'and especially by overlooking Comte.' Clarifies that if he has done so, it was 'through carelessness of expression', and claims that he has learnt much from Comte, of whom he has a higher estimate than most people, especially scientific people, who object to his religion. States that he believes that [ ] happiness consists 'in the dramatic and friendly affections'. Hopes that they shall always remain friends.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832–1904), knight, author and literary critic

Letter from J. D. Duff to Henry Sidgwick

Asks for his name to be added [as one who supports the setting up of a Syndicate to inquire into the issue of allowing of alternatives for one of the classical languages in the Previous Examination] to Sidgwick's list.

Duff, James Duff (1860–1940), classicist

Letter from J. W. Cross to Henry Sidgwick

Acknowledges receipt of 'Vol II [of George Eliot's Life as related in her Letters and Journals]' and Sidgwick's 'kind note', which he received the previous night. Praises Sidgwick's comments on the letters, and refers to their usefulness to him in their editing and arrangement. Informs him that it will be 'some days' before he sends volume III.

Cross, John Walter (1840-1924) banker

Letter from E[mily] Macleod to Nora Sidgwick

Since her signature 'cannot reach England in time to be sent in with the others', hopes she may send a few lines separately to say how, like everyone else who knew Henry, she feels 'what a real loss to all his death has been.' Can never forget that it was owing to his generosity that she originally came to Newnham College, and wishes that during the time she was there she could have been more capable of appreciating him. His influence on her will never be forgotten. Hopes to be back in England the following March, and suggests that she might have a chance of seeing Nora.

MacLeod, Emily (1862-1948) wife of Roderick Henry Macleod

Letter from J.P. Mahaffy to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to events in Megara 'about the time of Theognis and implied in his allusions', and to Welcker's and Bernhard's interpretation. Warns Sidgwick however, that Grote 'will not have it'. States that 'the [rows] in Megara were consequent upon the new departure.' Refers to 'the interesting case of [Timoleon]' Declares that 'Aristotle must be a liar' if [ ] is taken in a wide sense. Refers to 'the case of K[ ] [Grote IV. 54 599]. Tells Sidgwick to look at the case of the Gilonian citizens 'and the row they created at Syracuse [Grote V.317]'. Thinks that Aristotle w[oul]d almost certainly have created such a case as an [ ]. Refers again to 'the interesting case of [Timoleon]' Declares that 'Aristotle must be a liar' if [ ] is taken in a wide sense. Declares that Dionysius of Syracuse 'redistributed all the Syracusan lands', and that the reference to Diodorus XIV, 78 is important.

Mahaffy, Sir John Pentland (1839-1919) Knight, Provost of Trinity College Dublin

Printed fly-sheet containing a letter regarding compulsory Ancient Greek at Cambridge University

The letter is 'addressed to the leading London newspapers' on behalf of various members of Cambridge University. Those to whom the fly-sheet is sent are requested to send their names at once to Henry Sidgwick if they concur the arguments set down in the letter. Explains that the Council of the Senate of Cambridge University, 'acting on the recommendation of the General Board of Studies, have proposed the appointment of a Syndicate to consider the expediency of allowing more widely than at present an alternative for either Greek or Latin in the Previous Examination' and that a number of residents 'have appealed to non-resident Members of the Senate to aid them in resisting all enquiry into this question.'

Sets out 'one or two reasons against this very unusual step'. Refers to the report of a Syndicate of eleven years previously, whose members included Dr Kennedy, the Professor of Greek, and which proposed the removal of the obligation on candidates for honours of studying both Latin and Greek on the grounds that the obligation of students to study both languages tends to exclude from the University a number of able students, educated in schools in which Greek is not taught.

States that since that time, with the development and extension of 'the "modern" system', about half the boys educated in the schools represented at the previous Headmaster's Conference 'are now taught only one classical language. Argues that with the obligation still in place, the University is prevented 'from receiving a number of boys thoroughly capable of profiting by academic study and training', while the time spent by other boys on both classical languages could better be spent on other subjects.

Asserts that the removal of the obligation, would not, as those who are attempting to block this move claim, result in an end to the study of Greek in all but the leading schools. Acknowledges the charms of Greek literature, 'its historic prestige, and its established position in the education of Europe', and claims that the teachers at Cambridge who desire this change 'certainly do not aim at the extinction' of the language. Refutes the argument that ignorance of Greek would injure all professions.

Adds that it is not proposed that the above considerations be taken as grounds for an immediate decision in favour of the proposed change, but merely as food for thought. Appeals to 'all open-minded Members of the Senate to defeating this attempt [to stop the proposed change].' Announces that voting will take place in the Senate-House on the following Thursday, 29 October at 2pm. The names of those on behalf of whom the letter is written are added at the end, added to which, in ink, appears the name of C.A.M. Fennell of Jesus College.

Letter from Sr. Agnes Mason to Nora Sidgwick

Explains that there is a question of her writing an article for the Pilot, 'which the Editor proposes to call - "Professor Sidgwick's theological position" '. Wishes to know if Nora would be agreeable to such an article being published. States that it would be 'an explanation of the last chapter of the Methods [of Ethics] by what Dr. Sidgwick said in class in answer to questions.' It has always been a great distress to her that the chapter has been so completely misunderstood, 'even by those whose mere knowledge of his meaning of words ought to have enabled them to understand it.' Adds that her own sense of personal loss 'seems only to go on increasing': she hardly ever saw him, 'but he was there', and adds that he was probably the only person in the world to whom she could at any time have talked with the most absolute freedom and confidence. Until she met him she never had the opportunity of talking with anyone whom she was not afraid of shocking if she said what she really thought. Says that 'it was like entering a new world when [she] first went to his lectures.' Hopes that she did not trouble or vex him when she used to ask him so many questions. States that he was her conscience in all religious difficulties at Newnham, and that it was a great help to her 'in those new conditions to consider what he would have said in any difficulty.' Reports that they were praying for him every day during his illness. Is glad to hear that Nora is going abroad. Tells her not to answer with more than a postcard, saying 'yes' or 'no' in relation to the article.

Mason, Frances Agnes (1849-1941) founder of the Community of the Holy Family

Letter from J. W. Cross to Henry Sidgwick

Sends Vol III [not included] of 'The Life' [George Eliot's Life as related in her Letters and Journals] which he asks Sidgwick to read. Refers to 'the old association' between the latter and Eliot. Intends to send the volume off to press as soon as possible. States that no one outside his own family, aside from Lord Acton, has yet seen it. Claims that he shall feel it 'greatly strengthened by [Sidgwick's] revision' and does not know anyone 'whose judgment [his] wife wd. have trusted more.'

Cross, John Walter (1840-1924) banker

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