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Maitland, Frederic William (1850-1906) legal historian
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Letter from Sir Leslie Stephen to Nora Sidgwick

Has read the paper which Nora sent to him - a note in pencil explains that this paper is on the development of Henry Sidgwick's ethical views - and believes that it ought to be published. Declares that it makes his position clearer 'and shows very strikingly the careful process by which he had thought out his argument'. Has finished the article on Henry [which he was writing for Mind], apart from the conclusion; remarks on the impossibility to do justice to him in such a small space, which led him 'to send that message to Kate.'

Is glad that Nora intends to write a life of Henry based on his correspondence, and is certain that if she can procure the letters she 'may make a profoundly interesting book.' Admits that he had not appreciated the full beauty of Henry's character during his life. Adds that besides what she gave him on Henry and the articles in the Cambridge Review, he has come across a note 'in Venn' about the founding, by Venn, Mayor and Henry Sidgwick, of 'a little "Grote Club" in a meeting under John Grote as chairman at Trumpington.' Also refers to a notice in the Charity Organisation Society. Says that he tried, in the limited space available, to point out 'how the philosophy was the natural outcome of the life, without endeavouring to criticize it at all.' Will be at the meeting on the following Monday if he is well enough, staying with Maitland; suggests that he could call on Nora in the afternoon if she wished to see him.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from Alfred Marshall to Henry Sidgwick

Marshall writes that he had noticed how tired and ill Sidgwick was looking when he saw him a few days ago. Mentions a note from Maitland. Expresses his admiration and affection for Sidgwick which began during Marshall's early days at Cambridge.

Marshall, Alfred (1842–1924) economist

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Believes that Jebb, Myers and Maitland 'are desirable names.' Refers to the 'originators of the scheme who objected to having more than a few [and] when [Stephens] suggested Maitland doubted.' Announces his intention of sending to him at once and asking him to send on to Myers. Believes them to have a good set of names, and announces that he shall propose Maitland when he meets his collaborators. States that he is amused by the caution of Balfour and Lord Rosebery, who, he says, have both learnt to be afraid of commiting themselves to his creed. Thanks Sidgwick for his note.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from J. G. Frazer to 'Master' [Henry Montagu Butler]

Inch-ma-home, Cambridge - Thanks him for his letter giving his permission to use his name on the memorial [to the Australian government on preserving the anthropological record of 'primitive men now left on the globe']; other signatories are Professors [Sir Richard] Jebb, [Frederic?] Maitland, [Charles] Waldstein [later Walston], [James?] Ward, [Henry Francis?] Pelham, Andrew Lang, Henry Jackson, and James Bryce, and of Cambridge science men, [Sir Michael?] Foster, [Alfred?] Newton, [Sir Francis?] Darwin, [John Newport] Langley, [Adam?] Sedgwick.

Letter from George Macaulay Trevelyan to R. C. Trevelyan

The Master's Lodge, Trinity College, Cambridge. - Thanks Bob for sending his 'usual Christmas present "From the Shiffolds"'. Is going up to Hallington for Christmas and New Year tomorrow night, after the Entrance Scholarship Election meetings; Humphry, Molly, and their five children will be there, though not Janet as 'the northern winter is not very good for her'. She has generally 'kept fairly well this term', however. Hopes to have his "Autobiography and other Essays" out in May, and will send Bob a copy; this will probably be the last new book' he ever brings out. Has been re-reading [Frederic] Maitland's "Life [and Letters] of Leslie Stephen"; perhaps the first chapters are 'rather dull', but then he believes it 'one of the very best biographies' in English.

Copy letter from W. O. E. Oesterley to Sir James Frazer

St. Alban's Vicarage, Bedford Park, W.4. Dated 9 Jan. 1919 - Has read his 'Folk-Lore in the Old Testament' and enjoyed it, and reviewed it for the 'Edinburgh Review', mentions a verse in Deuteronomy in support of his theory of primogeniture; mentions that [Frederic William] Maitland supports his theory of 'jus primae noctis' in his 'Doomsday Book and After'.

Letter from Herbert Fisher to Nora Sidgwick

Expresses his gratitude to her for letting him see 'these two letters', which he says are of great interest. States that the dated letter 'expresses views upon a subject upon which [he believes] there is no published view of Maitland's views', International Law. Has taken copies of the letters.

Fisher, Herbert Albert Laurens (1865–1940) historian and politician

Letter from Sir F. Pollock to Henry Sidgwick

Reports that he is lecturing on the doctrine of Sovereignty in England in that term. Acknowledges his agreement with Sidgwick on his criticisms on Austin. Refers to Sidgwick's Elements of Politics, of which he is unsure if there is a second edition. Asks why have people accepted Austin 'as the exponent of the English school on this point', and what he is supposed to have added to Bentham's Fragment on Government. Believes that Austin's departures from Bentham 'are for the worse in both matter and form.' Refers to Hobbes, and concedes that Austin was successful in formulating 'the conception of a pure or abstract science of positive law.' Corrects Sidgwick's reference to "Austin's Theory of Jurisprudence", which he did not, to Pollock's knowledge write, and refers to works actually written by him, i.e., The Province of Jurisprudence Determined and a posthumously published work: Lectures on Jurisprudence. Reports that there is 'an excellent account of Maitland from Grand Canary', and asks Sidgwick if he will be at the [Trinity] College commemoration on 9 December. Reminds Sidgwick that they had not yet 'had out' their difference about 'the irreducible minimum of [ ] for profitable discussion of the universe.' Mentions that the previous night 'a small philosophical club [at Oxford] discussed the Ethics of Conformity' and that 'Rashdall was present and defended his position with great ability.'

Pollock, Sir Frederick (1845–1937) 3rd Baronet, jurist

Letter from Francis Jenkinson to Nora Sidgwick

Refers to a memorial meeting [for Henry Sidgwick] held that afternoon. Feels that she will forgive him for not having written in August. Remarks that it must have comforted her to hear what was said of Henry at the meeting, 'and still more the tone in which it was said by Mr Bryce, Leslie Stephen, Canon Gore, Dicey, and Maitland...' Suggests that it must be a help to her to know how his memory lives [on] in the hearts of such men, and to be able to carry on herself 'at least one branch of his work'. Claims that he often wished he knew Henry better, but that he had no excuse for approaching him. Adds that he has happy memories of him at the Ad Eundem and remembers their journey in the same train the previous May.

Jenkinson, Francis John Henry (1853-1923) librarian

Letters from Henry Jackson to Leslie Stephen and Nora Sidgwick; notes by Henry Jackson and Nora Sidgwick

Typewritten copy of letter. Refers to 'some rough memoranda [included] about the share which Henry Sidgwick took in College and University business.' Adds that he is not writing anything 'with a view to its incorporation, solid, in [Stephen's] article', and that he is merely putting down a few facts, and that Stephen may use them how he wishes.

Memoranda including information on awards and scholarships, appointment and resignation as fellow, etc., taken from the Trinity College admissions book, the university calendar, the ' "Bursar's Minutes" '. Also contains Jackson's own recollections of Sidgwick, with reference to himself and others. Refers to Sidgwick's membership of the 'governing body' [of Trinity College], and his promotion of the abolition of tests in the University and his campaign for the repeal of all religious restrictions on the election and conditions of tenure of Fellows as then contained in the statutes.

Relates Sidgwick's' involvement in the campaign for women's education. Remarks, however, that he was not 'at first one of the active promoters' of the plan for examinations for women. States that the prime mover was F.W.H. Myers, 'inspired by Mrs Butler, and refers to a meeting held in London in December 1866 or 1867 to discuss the establishment of a private association to examine women, which Sidgwick did not attend. Claims that after the University had taken up the project and instituted the Higher Local Examination, and a demand arose for teaching in Cambridge to prepare women for it, Sidgwick 'threw himself with unexpected energy into the work of organizing lectures, and from that time forward his zeal for the cause never flagged.'

Refers to 'the abortive College statutes of 13 December 1872', in which Sidgwick had no part because he was not at the time a fellow; and to the Burn-Morgan memorial of 5 December 1872, which Sidgwick signed, and which specified 'four reforms which "would increase the educational efficiency of the University, and at the same time promote the advancement of science and learning." ' Claims that the matter was settled at his [Jackson's] rooms. States that Sidgwick was not a fellow when the existing codes of college statutes were made under the powers of the Commission of 1877-1881, but that in December 1879 and January 1880 he was 'one of a group of academic liberals who met at Trotter's rooms to discuss the Commissioners' tentative scheme of University and College legislation.' Relates that Sidgwick was nominated in 1882 by the Special Board for Moral Science to be its representative on the General Board of Studies, and that he supported the argument for the money derived from the colleges to be spent in the partial endowment of many posts, rather that in the complete endowment of a few.

Speaks of his admiration for Sidgwick during the debates on the duties of professors, and claims that, despite being a professor himself, Sidgwick took 'a large and generous view' of the work that they should be expected to do. Refers to his [Jackson's] regret at HS' departure from the General Board of Studies. Refers to Sidgwick's interest in the difficulties that the colleges faced in relation to the payment of taxes to the University, and claims that his scheme of relaxation failed 'by reason of its excessive subtlety and elaboration.' Refers to his membership of the Council of the Senate from 1890 to 1898, and states that he attended regularly, and took an active and lively part in discussion. Remarks that he seemed to him 'to have conservatized, and he had little sympathy with uneducated people.' States that he was 'a frequent, ready, and singularly effective speaker in our little parliament held in the Arts School', and adds that it would not have surprised him if he had stood for Parliament.

Refers to his fairness in regard to debates, and his impartial treatment of opposing views. Defends him against the charge that he ' "sat on the fence" ' on certain issues, and claims that he held very strongly the view that he took, but 'was apt to change his point of view.' In relation to Sidgwick's 'munificent benefactions to the University', states that he is continually grateful for the gift which brought Maitland back to the University. Concludes by saying that he does not know how to write about the years between 1862 and 1872, 'when his astonishing maturity made him potent among the younger Trinity men', and claims that during the previous summer he [Jackson] has been 'living perpetually in that time.'

Jackson, Henry (1839–1921), classical scholar

Letter from Arthur J. Balfour to his sister Nora Sidgwick, with notes on Henry Sidgwick

[Dictated to W. Berwick] Sends her his 'contribution to the Biography', i.e., notes about Henry Sidgwick [included]. States that he is not quite satisfied with it, but does not intend to make any further alterations until he sees it in type. States that he is very glad she was 'able to stay so long, and had such good weather.' Urges her not to overwork herself if she can help it, and adds that they shall probably meet in the late autumn.

Prefaces the account by explaining that his sister Nora has asked him, as one of the earliest of Henry Sidgwick's pupils in philosophy, to supplement, from his personal recollection, 'what has been so excellently said by Professor Maitland and others who came somewhat later...', but claims that he has, in fact, little to add to their statements, and nothing to correct in them. States that he was, as an undergraduate, a fellow commoner, which gave him more privileges than many of his contemporaries. Relates that he [Balfour] came up from Eton to Cambridge in 1866, 'with no academic ambitions, but with the highest expectations as to the gratifications which academic life had to offer...', and claims that Sidgwick was very instrumental in insuring that these expectations were not disappointed.

Declares that Sidgwick offered, in addition to his ordinary lectures, 'a small class for those specially interested in the metaphysical side of the "Moral Science" Tripos...', which consisted, he believes, of only one other student besides himself. Describes these classes, which took place in Sidgwick's room and consisted mainly of conversation and discussion. Refers favourably to Sidgwick's method of teaching, and states that they were 'allowed to forget that [they] were preparing for an examination...', which added to the pleasure of learning. Adds that Sidgwick did not force upon his students the historic method of studying philosophy, and states that altough the study of the history of is important, its importance is 'secondary and derivative', and is not likely to be appreciated by the 'youthful student'. States that he never drove his pupils 'into the arid regions of speculation....' Regrets that he is unable to recall the precise details of his method of teaching.

Claims that the relation between Sidgwick and himself of tutor and pupil 'rapidly ripened into a warm personal friendship....' Relates how Sidgwick was adept at encouraging students. Claims that of all the men he has known Sidgwick was the readiest to consider every controversy and every controversialist on them; that he never claimed authority, never sought to impose his views, never argued for victory, and never evaded an issue. Remarks on the influence HS had over the intellectual development of any who had 'the good fortune to be associated with him, whether as pupil or as friend', and claims that he [Balfour] was 'doubly happy' in that he was both. With amendments and emendations.

Balfour, Arthur James (1848–1930), 1st Earl of Balfour, Prime Minister and philosopher

Typewritten accounts, and references to accounts, of HS by various friends, acquaintances, pupils, colleagues and admirers.

Includes Professor Maitland's speech at the memorial meeting for Henry Sidgwick; obituary by Miss E.E.C. Jones, which appeared in the Journal of Education for October 1900; 'Dr Keynes in the Economic Journal of Dec 1900', references to Sidgwick made by Professor Sorley, quoted from a letter of 2 September 1900, and from the International Journal of Ethics for January 1901; reference to Sidgwick made by Alice Gardner in a letter of 24 August 1900; 'Mr C.F.G. Masterman in the Commonwealth for November 1900'; 'From the Cambridge Letter of 1900 of the Newnham College Club'; 'A.T. Lyttelton [Bishop of Southampton] in a letter of Sept. 21, 1900'; 'Sir F. Pollock in a letter of Aug.30.1900'; 'Mrs Sanger [A.D. Pease] in a letter of Sept.23.1900'; 'Mr C. Cooper who took his degree in 1874 in a letter to Dr Ward' from October 1900; 'Professor Mandello, Professor of Law and Political Science at Pressbourg in a letter of Oct. 14, 1900'; 'Miss Agnes Mason in a letter of Nov 16. 1900'; 'Mrs McLeod [E. Stevenson] in a letter of Oct.24.1900'; 'Miss A.M. Jackson in a letter of June 9.1900'; 'Miss Alice Woods in a letter of Sept.2 1900'; 'Miss Amy Sharpe in a letter of Sept.3.1900'; 'Miss Emma Brooke in a letter of Sept.29.1900'; 'Miss Susan Cunnington in a letter of March 9.1902'. Some MS explanatory notes, amendments and emendations included.

Cambridge University Reporter: 'Report of the proceedings at a meeting for promoting a memorial of the late Henry Sidgwick, Litt.D. Knightsbridge Professor'

Meeting held on Monday, 26 November 1900. Lists those present and those who sent their apologies. Includes the speeches made by the Master of Trinity College [H. M. Butler] and the Vice-Chancellor, Mr Chawner; Sir Richard Jebb, the Right Hon. James Bryce, Leslie Stephen, Canon Gore, the Bishop of Bristol, Professor A.V. Dicey, Professor Maitland, Professor Marshall and Professor James Ward, as well as comments made by the Rev. J. Wardale and Professor Sorley. A motion proposed by Jebb that there be a memorial in Cambridge to Sidgwick was unanimously carried.

Letter from F. Pollock to Nora Sidgwick

Explains that a 'warning note from Maitland had in some measure prepared [them] for the sad news' of Henry Sidgwick's death. He and those who knew Henry 'lose not only a teacher and thinker but a man who did something better and rarer than founding a school or propagating his own opinions.' Never knew anyone who had the same power of leading others to bring out and develop whatever was best of their own; their gain 'is not measured by published words, nor [their] loss by the definable sum of what remains unfinished.'

Pollock, Sir Frederick (1845–1937) 3rd Baronet, jurist

Letter from F. Pollock to Nora Sidgwick, with printed obituary of Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for her letter. Saw Henry Sidgwick so often that they 'had no occasion for correspondence.' Recalls that in the early days of Mind they did exchange some letters 'on points of ethics', but remarks that 'anything he then said in private must have been superseded long since by his books.' Refers to an enclosed obituary of Henry which he wrote for the Pilot [included: 78/2]; hopes that it may be acceptable to Nora. Showed the proof to [F.W.] Maitland 'to make sure of being right about the facts of the women's degrees affair....' Explains that the 'slightly incongruous appearance of the article in an organ of militant High Anglicanism is due to [his] being an old friend of Lath[ ]'s' and Pollock's being anxious to do him any good he can 'short of joining the E.C.U'.

Printed obituary [78/2] by Pollock, entitled 'Henry Sidgwick', extracted from the Pilot of 15 September 1900.