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Printed letter from Wilfrid Ward to the editor of the Spectator

Refers to the letter to the Spectator of 15 September from 'M' [see 104/14], denying the accuracy of a claim in an article on Henry Sidgwick that appeared in 8 September, and suggests that the statements of the writer of the article and that of 'M.' both 'are true in one sense and false in another'. Claims that Sidgwick's genius was critical rather than constructive, and that his best sayings were amendments on the sayings of others. States also that he did not inspire, 'because his teaching was predominantly not the inculcation of any system - not even of utilitarian ethics - but the correction, limitation, co-ordination, or criticism of what had been more or less loosely said by others.' Adds that he did inspire many of those with whom he discussed the problems of philosophy, and especially on the philosophy of religious belief. Concludes that Sidgwick was inspiring as a philosopher, but as the exponent of a system he was not in the least inspiring. States, however, that 'the ethos exhibited in his own methods of inquiry and criticism, one it became fully apparent, was most inspiring.'

Ward, Wilfrid Philip (1856-1916) biographer and ecclesiastical historian

Proof of [letter] by J.R. Seeley to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to a paper he wrote on the proposed reform in the Classical Tripos, in which he urged the introduction of philosophy 'on the ground that the subjects with which philosophy is occupied are far more directly useful in after life than those with which philology is occupied.' Refers to Mr Vansittart's answer to his argument, and claims to feel somewhat hurt at the tone of the latter's sentences. It never occurred to him in writing his paper 'that useful pursuits could be taken to mean lucrative pursuits'; thinks that it is a pity it occurred to Mr Vansittart in reading it.

To clear himself from suspicion he proposes to give 'the desired definition of usefulness in after life', in order to counter his detractor's arguments. Disputes the opinion that he should adopt 'the doctrine of Mr Mozley' in relation to the matter, and puts forward the view that Cambridge studies 'ought to be such as will be useful in after life' and that they are not sufficiently so. Adds however that he does not maintain 'that they ought to be just such studies and no others, as will be most useful in after life'. Contends that the way in which a study can best help a man forward in his occupation is by furnishing him with the general principles which apply to it.'

Applies his theory to the case of the study of theology, referring to the fact that a great number of Cambridge students become clergymen. Suggests that the introduction of Greek philosophy into the Tripos examination would be of benefit to such students. Also refers to the benefit of the study of philosophy for English lawyers. Makes reference to Aristotle, and Plato's Republic, and to a treatise by Rousseau on education. Adds that he does not question that the study of philology has its uses. Quotes 'Mr Mill', who claimed that every sentence analysed 'is a lesson in logic', and regrets that grammar 'is not at present taught very rationally at Cambridge.' Believes that the introduction of Sanskrit into the examination in place of history would ruin it. States that if a third dead language is added to the two difficult ones already required he will not have any objection to the examination as such but will 'hope to see it sink decidedly below the level of the Moral Sciences Examination, as dealing with less important subjects, and deprived of the power of conferring a degreee, as an insufficient test of a high education.'

Letter from George Butler to Henry Sidgwick

Believes that modern languages should be given 'a platform side by side with Latin and Greek' in university examinations. Refers to the diplomatic service, and foreign correspondents 'in large commercial houses'. Observes that much prejudice exists against the examination which is to supercede the Previous Examination at Cambridge. Refers to Dr Kennedy's suggestion that students should be able to secure 'a double training up to their 6th Term, after which they may read exclusively for either Tripos, or if they prefer it, for the Moral Science's Tripos.' Speaks of his desire to see men leaving the universities well-educated in every sense of the word, and of the importance of allowing 'a certain liberty of choice' in relation to subjects to be studied at university. Remarks that if classical scholars like Professor Kennedy and Lord Lyttelton are prepared to allow an alternative for Greek, he 'should regard it as mere destructiveness if [he] opposed French and German being substituted for it.' Suggests how the difficulty of making two examinations in the Gospel - English and Greek - of equal value might be overcome.

Refers to the M[oderation] Examination at Oxford, and its effect on classical study, and states that Professor Conington, with whom he examined some years previously for the Hertford Latin Scolarship, 'spoke in favour of the [working] of the recent system' [at Oxford]. Declares that he is wholly in favour the new scheme in relation to the Previous Examination, which the University of Cambridge now proposes to adopt, as it 'will act beneficially as a stimulus to industry in public schools and especially in those which, like Liverpool College, draw their pupils from the various grades of the Middle Class' and are obliged to make modern languages a part of their curriculum.

Butler, George (1819-1890) Canon of Winchester

Letter from Arthur Faber to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Sidgwick for his pamphlet 'containing the proposed alteration at Cambridge', and states that he will read it with interest. Declares that the recognition of modern languages 'at the University' is not only wise, but just and necessary: if the schools 'are really to feed the Universities, there must be the same framework of studies, practised in one, [reorganised] and examined in the other.' Hopes that the example 'will soon filter to Oxford....'

Faber, Arthur Henry (1832-1910) headmaster and clergyman

Letter from H.W. Moss to Marshall

Regrets that he cannot help Marshall, and states that if he came up [to Cambridge] at all he would vote against parts I and IV, 'against the former as [he] would against any scheme which proposed to add a feather's weight to the excessive burdens now laid upon candidates for classical honours', and against the former principally because he thinks that it would be in effect 'nothing more than a superfluous anticipation of the mathematical and classical triposes', and would attract none or next to none 'of the "poll" men.' Claims to like part III, and sympathise with its principle, but wishes that some security could have been provided therein 'for the thoroughness of the examination by a definition of the subjects and that no advantage had been given to "students who offer themselves for examination in Latin only" over those who wish to be examined in Greek only.'

Moss, Henry Whitehead (1841–1917) headmaster

Letter from Edwin A. Abbott to Marshall.

Has looked through the report of the Syndicate [established to inquire into the issue of the allowing of alternatives to one of the classical languages in the Previous Examination], and very much wishes that he could come up to Cambridge to vote for it. Agrees with the principle of parts II, III and IV, and hopes that the Report will be adopted. In relation to part II, believes that 'it will have the effect of raising the standard both of dead and of modern languages', and predicts that teachers will no longer have to inflict both Greek and Latin upon pupils 'that will never get a single literary idea from either'. Adds that French and German will gain more respect and attention also.

Believes that the 'peculiar training' given by the classical languages would now be supplied by one of the two 'dead languages'. Fears that if both were to be insisted upon as requirements for the Previous Examination, 'an increasing number of able scientific and mathematical students might find Cambridge inaccessible to them.' Expresses the wish that part IV had been in force when he was an undergraduate. Believes that the majority of headmasters will welcome the proposed changes.

Abbott, Edwin Abbott (1838-1926) theologian and historian

Letter from M.F. Latham to [ ] Marshall.

Thanks Marshall for [sending her a letter from F.W.H. Myers], and says that she now understands something of what she [Marshall] described 'of a "thrill" from [ ] Mr. Myers' style'. Is surprised at what Myers says 'about H Sidgwick's ways in youth', as she and her family always considered him 'as the most lively interested talker [they] knew, interested in discussing anything and everything.' Recalls one of his visits as an undergraduate, when he joined in everthing the family did, and they considered that he made everything he took part in more amusing. Refers also to his organising of discussions on wet days, and how he would sometimes be the only outsider among a large family group. Says that she noticed when she came to Cambridge that 'he was altered, quiet, apparently absorbed in thought and though he was always responsive he no longer started things as of old'; 'this would be about the time when he was much occupied with university reforms as well as women's education and other social reforms.' Adds that he was always delightful to meet, and recalls 'with gratitude the letter, alluding to old times', that he wrote to her when her mother died.

Latham, Marianne Frances (1839-1926) née Bernard, mistress of Girton

MS notes in Nora's Sidgwick's hand

Miscellaneous queries regarding the contents of Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir, in relation to dates, for example, that of Minnie Sidgwick's marriage, letters, and events.

Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1845-1936) Principal of Newnham College Cambridge

Letter from Arthur Sidgwick to Nora Sidgwick.

Has been away to see the Robertsons; is now 'in a rush of politics.' Is coming to Cambridge the following day, but will probably be unable to do much. Has written to H. G. D[akyns] about Frank Vivian, and undertakes to send Nora his reply when it comes. Encloses 'the "Scope and Method" ' [not included]. In relation to the date of the establishment of the Ad Eundem [Society], states that his records go back only as far as 1868 when Jackson was elected, but that his diary shows that he attended an Ad Eundem dinner on 9 June 1866.

Sidgwick, Arthur (1840–1920), educationist and classical scholar

Letter from H. Montagu Butler to Nora Sidgwick

Having returned from a Wellington College meeting, he finds that he has so much to do that he is unable to attend Mr Freshfield's lecture, but it was kind of Nora to have given him the opportunity. Remarks that since Henry won the Craven Scholarship in 1857 'no Rugby man has gained that particular distinction till [his] nephew Ralph' a few days previously. Declares that he believes that no Rugbeian since 1857 or earlier has won 'the Battie, the Browne, the Pitt, or the Waddington', and that in 1858 C.H. Tawney won the Davies scholarship, 'as Franklin Lushington had done in 1845'. Adds that Arthur Sidgwick won the Porson Scholarship/Prize in 1861. States that in 1856 the Bell Scholarship for sons of clergymen went to A. Holmes, Henry Sidgwick, J.M. Wilson, and in 1860 to Arthur Sidgwick, and that in 1858 Henry won the Browne Medal for a Greek epigram. Adds that the Browne Medal for the Greek ode was won by Arthur Sidgwick in 1861 and 1862.

Butler, Henry Montagu (1833–1918), college head

Letter from J.R. Mozley to J.B. Mayor

Thanks Mayor for returning his MS. Claims that if he had been confident enough in his memory to serve Mayor's or Nora Sidgwick's purpose regarding 'the philosophical discussions at Trumpington' he would have answered him before. Is confused about dates, but states that he has little doubt that he first went to Professor Grote's house to listen to, and occasionally read, philosophical papers in the October term of 1863. States that the only other people who attended these meetings at this time were Henry Sidgwick, 'John Venn of Caius, and Pearson of St John's'. Describes the attributes of each of those who attended, and remarks that Sidgwick obviously preferred ethics to metaphysics, and recalls [Professor] Alfred Marshall emphasising his admiration of this side of Sidgwick very soon after he made his acquaintance. Refers to Sidgwick's opinion of Kant and Hegel, and to the intuitionalism 'which in the end he united with his utilitarianism'. Is uncertain as to whether he gave any measure of assent to the first fundametal proposition of 'Ferrier's Institutes of Metaphysics'

Wishes that he could remember more of the actual papers that Sidgwick read to the Philosophical Society, which was, after Grote's death, called the Grote Society, but has the impression that 'they were tentatives towards the kind of line which he afterwards took in the Methods of Ethics'. Refers also to Sidgwick's attitude to metaphysics. Believes that J.S. Mill was the philosopher whom he always admired and trusted the most. Holds, however, that he changed his view of Mill between 1863 and 1873, citing his reaction to Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, and to Fitzjames Stephen's attack on Mill in Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity.

Refers to Grote's view of ethics and metaphysics, and to his Treatise on the Moral Ideals, and to the similarities between him and Sidgwick. Refers also to other members of the society, such as Henry Jackson and Maurice. Recalls Sidgwick's good opinion of Venn, who was a great admirer of Mill, and names other members of the society, such as W. K. Clifford and T. W. Levin. Recalls also that when he [Mozley] went to Clifton in September 1864, Sidgwick wrote to somebody, referring to him as 'the first original a priori philosopher that has trod the streets of Cambridge for many a day'. Does not think that Herbert Spencer was ever a great favourite in the society, but had himself a great respect for him 'as the founder of the theory of evolution.' Adds that when 'the old crow, who could count up to five, but not beyond, once came before the Grote Society', Sidgwick 'was unkind enough to doubt his existence' and none of the rest of them could give evidence for him.

Mozley, John Rickards (1840-1931) educator and mathematician

Letter from Nora Sidgwick to Professor J.B. Mayor

Asks for information on the Grote Society. States that she has an interesting account of it written by Dr Venn for Sir Leslie Stephen, and an account by Professor Marshall of the later period of the society after Grote's death. Understands from Venn's account that it was not a formal society in the earlier period, but meetings of a small group, interested in philosophic discussion, at Grote's house, and that those attending dined with him once or twice a term and discussed afterwards. Asks when the society began 'and when Henry got to know Professor Grote and when he first joined these meetings.' Explains that she is doing research in view of the memoir of Henry that she and Arthur Sidgwick are attempting to put together. Refers to a dialogue by Professor Grote that Mayor published in the [Chemical] Review of March 1889, which had 'a little bit in the middle by Henry', and asks Mayor if he can tell her the history of this piece. Asks if it was a paper discussed at Trumpington, and how the co-operation came about.

Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1845-1936) Principal of Newnham College Cambridge

Letter card from Alexandrina Mayor to Nora Sidgwick

Forgot to mention in her last letter [104/69] that Mr Aldis Wright was the other member of the original group making up the Philosophical Society [later the Grote Society]. States that her husband will write to her when he arrives home.

Mayor, Alexandrina Jessie (1830-1927) wife of Joseph Bickersteth Mayor

Letter from T. Worsley to [Henry Sidgwick].

Declares that he has read with interest his correspondent's 'résumé of the fortunes of Philosophy at Cambridge in recent times.' It seems in the main true and consistent with what was said at their 'late meeting'; felt after their interview that he had not done full justice to the philosophic aptitudes of the three men about whom he had specially enquired, and that 'in a more congenial atmosphere they might have formed a genuine philosophic triumvirate, of which Thirlwall with his depth of thought and irony should have been the Socrates, Julius Hare...the Plato, [and] Whewell...the Aristotle.' Believes that the attempt to contract all philosophy within the limits of physics and mathematics, and its 'partial emergence into greater breadth and freedom, through the classical and moral triposes' has been 'fairly sketched and accounted for', and believes that this aspect of the subject cannot be left out as it constitutes a main part of the history of philosophy, and may not be very familiar at Oxford 'or in the world at large.' Admits that [Sidgwick] is probably right about Whewell's later lectures, Maurice's and Grote's. Discusses his own assertions with regard to philosophy's failure as an intellectual system, and its failure to 'sustain the weight of a full and truly human life'. States that he has made one or two slight corrections in his correspondent's paper, and asks him to do likewise with this letter. Gives him permission to append it to his own paper if he so wishes.

Letter from J. N. Keynes to Nora Sidgwick

Sends Nora what he has written for the Economic Journal [not included]; it is very kind of her to agree to read it before it is published, and he will be grateful for any suggestions. Refers to the alterations he has made in the light of the notes she sent him.

Explains that the course of lectures referred to by Professor Mandello [see 104/74] is a course on philosophy and sociology, delivered by Henry Sidgwick in the Easter term of 1896. When Mandello was in Cambridge he dined with them and afterwards called on them; does not know or remember enough about him 'to have any reliable view as to the value of his opinion.' Also does not know anything about the Institut de sociologie of which Mandello speaks; undertakes to find out more if he can. Does not know who is the best person to consult about the desirability of publishing Henry's course of lectures on sociology. Returns Mandello's letter.

Keynes, John Neville (1852–1949) logician, economist, and university administrator

Letter from E.E.C. Jones to Nora Sidgwick, with poem by Jones

Refers to an enclosed typescript poem, To an Ideal Teacher, [included: 82/2] written by her for Henry Sidgwick, which came out in the Cambridge Review 'at the time of the Letters to Lecturers' [6 Feb 1900]; thought that Nora had not perhaps seen it. Hopes that Nora was not tired 'after the river', and declares what a kindness and pleasure Nora's coming was.

Jones, Emily Elizabeth Constance (1848-1922) philosopher and Mistress of Girton

Letter from Frank N. Hales and Joseph M. Asher to Nora Sidgwick

Express their heartfelt sympathy with Henry and Nora Sidgwick, and their wish that Henry may soon recover from his illness, of which they learned from F.W.H. Myers. As his pupils, they wish to assure Henry of the honour and respectful affection in which they hold him.

Hales, Frank Noel (1878-1952) psychologist

Letter from Emma Brooke to Nora Sidgwick

Says 'an unwillingness to intrude' upon Nora's great sorrow has prevented her from writing until now. Asks her to let her express her deep sympathy with her, and her own grief at the loss of 'a friend and teacher so revered' as Henry. Refers to his kindness to her and to others, and the affection so many had felt for him, and says that one of the great privileges of her life has been that she 'came under the influence of a mind so elevated, so gently, and so true.'

Brooke, Emma Frances (1844-1896) novelist

Letter from Susan Cunnington to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for her letter, and admits that she had felt that HS might be too busy for an introduction. Supposes that Nora must be very busy with all the work she has besides Newnham business. Has been watching for the announcement of a memoir of Henry, but presumes that it will take a long time to prepare. Of the notices of his life that she read, she liked best the one in the Pilot. Only attended four of Henry's' lectures, which were 'on some of the great names in French Literature for the Group B students in [her] first year at Newnham', but found his teaching inspirational, and has never forgotten the illuminating effect his lectures had on her.

Is not only at work at writing: she is 'Maths Mistress in the Brighton House High School', where she came five years previously to fill a gap, and stayed. Lives with one of her colleagues, who is a friend of hers. Has applied for most of the jobs that have become vacant in the 'Company's Schools', but has had no success so far. Undertakes to send Nora a copy of the [Story of] Arithmetic when it comes out. States that Mr [ ] 'is thinking of bringing out some County Readers', and, if so, she [Cunnington] may do Sussex; has asked George Allen to let her annotate Ruskin's Queen of the Air, 'in a way similar to the Emerson [Emerson's essay on beauty. A class study in English composition]', but has had no final decision yet.

Cunnington, Susan (1856-1950) mathematician, writer, and educationist

James Coulman Ross: "Journal of a tour in Switzerland, &c, &c, during the summer of the year 1864"

Incomplete illustrated fair copy of a travel journal which stops in the middle of chapter 4 of a projected 9 chapters. MS title page continues, 'Illustrated with plates, vignettes, plans, and a map of the route taken from the time of entering Switzerland to the time of leaving it at Basle; by James Coulman Ross; of Trinity College, Cambridge; Life member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.' With a contents page that projects chapters and plates not completed here; present is a folding panorama map from the Aeggischorn and from the Mettelhorn, a folding map of the route in Switzerland, and a folding table, 'Notes from the thermometer, aneroid, & barometer, copied from observations taken by Rev. Geo. C. Hodgkinson'. Ross travelled with George Christopher Hodgkinson, George Frederick Hodgkinson, George James Spence Hodgkinson, and Grosvenor Hodgkinson.

Ross, James Coulman (1844-1916) clergyman

Bound typescript notes of lectures given by R. C. Jebb on Milton and other poets

Typescript of 12 lectures, extracts from the notebook of E. Adams on a course of 11 lectures given in 1872, and one given in New Brighton in 1873. Some of the lectures were copied from the original lent by R. C. Jebb and Mrs [Jeannetta?] Potts, and the rest are Adams' own notes on the lectures. A note on the first page of the typescript quotes Jebb's Life in which he refers to them as '"Lectures on Milton's Areopagitica and some minor poems" given to a class of ladies'. Typescript possibly created by Eliza Adams, as the last typescript notes that it was 'copied from Mr Jebb's M.S. kindly lent me by him 10 Feb / 73'.

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