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Additional Manuscripts c Sidgwick, Eleanor Mildred (1845-1936) Principal of Newnham College Cambridge
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Letter from James Robertson to Nora Sidgwick

States that he has greatly enjoyed reading Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir. It is right that it should be published: while some eminent men who have written books 'disappoint in their biographies', Henry's books 'did very far from present him fully', and 'the biography gives the charm of his conversation and personality happily.' It makes him feels that he wishes he had known him better than he had. Refers to Henry's position in regard to matters of faith and his fairness of judgment.; would have liked to have known more of Henry's attitude to Christianity. Refers to the 'last months', and declares the letters of that time to be 'especially remarkable even from a literary point of view for sincerity and the perfect expression of true and vivid feeling.' Trusts that [Arthur] Balfour 'will get much good from this short rest.'

Letter from Alice Woods to Nora Sidgwick

Asks Nora's forgiveness for intruding on her sorrow. Wishes to add a few words to the sympathy which she is sure must be felt for Nora 'by every single person who ever knew' Henry. Has sometimes doubted the wisdom of working for the Moral Sciences Tripos from a teacher's point of view, but says she can never be too glad that she took it because it brought her in contact with Henry and 'Dr. [James] Ward.' Looks back 'on the hours spent in that delightful little study in the old house, as some of the most helpful in [her] life', and says she used 'greatly to envy the undergraduates who had the charm of discussing with Mr. Sidgwick some of the deepest problems of life'. Declares that 'even as it was, one's life has been the better and [stronger] for having known him'; has 'a dim idea' of what the loss must be to Nora.

Woods, Alice (1849-1941) Principal of Maria Grey College

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Written on the occasion of the death of [Mrs Sidgwick's brother, F.M. Balfour] in a climbing accident. States his intention of attempting to answer Sidgwick's question frankly and as clearly as possible. Announces that he is beginning to think 'all this mountaineering indefensible, but stresses that he should not blame either Balfour or himself for not having thought so 'before these terrible accidents.' Discusses the difficulty of laying down precise rules [in relation to mountaineering], and refers to papers he wrote for the Alpine Journal, in which he advised caution. Refers to Mather's and B[ ]'s letter. Discusses the relative merits of guides, and observes that they were more relied upon in the past. Explains that his wife does not wish to trouble Mrs Sidgwick with any expression of sympathy, but assures Sidgwick that she has been constantly thinking of her. States that his natural impulse would lead him to ask Mrs Sidgwick's forgiveness, but acknowledges 'the uselessness of saying anything of that kind.'

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832–1904), knight, author and literary critic

Letter from Kate Rathbone to Nora Sidgwick, with poem copied from the Spectator

Reports that she has been reading Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir 'with great interest', and claims that she continually recognises things in it to be true of both Henry and Nora. States that his influence was great, and claims to be very grateful for it. Refers to the claim in the book that the poems The Despot's Heir and Goethe and Frederika are the only two poems ever published by Henry; she was given a copy of one 'said to be Dr. Sidgwick's from the Spectator', and wonders if her informant was mistaken about this.

Encloses a copy of the poem [98/2], beginning with the line: 'God speaks to hearts of men in many ways;' - copied from the Spectator, September 1872.

Letter from Amy Sharp to Nora Sidgwick

Says what a great shock it was to her to hear the news of Henry's death, and that he leaves a place 'not to be filled by any other.' Feels that her contact with him at Cambridge was 'one of the greatest and best things' that life has brought her, and that no other influence that she has come under could be put on the same level with his. Refers to his involvement in the cause of women's education.

Sharp, Amelia (1857-1939) suffragist and writer

Letter from Emma Brooke to Nora Sidgwick

Says 'an unwillingness to intrude' upon Nora's great sorrow has prevented her from writing until now. Asks her to let her express her deep sympathy with her, and her own grief at the loss of 'a friend and teacher so revered' as Henry. Refers to his kindness to her and to others, and the affection so many had felt for him, and says that one of the great privileges of her life has been that she 'came under the influence of a mind so elevated, so gently, and so true.'

Brooke, Emma Frances (1844-1896) novelist

Letter from Evelyn Strutt, Lady Rayleigh to Nora Sidgwick

Asks Nora's opinion on the review of Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir in the Times. Believes that letters, 'delightful as they are have not all the charm of [Henry's] conversation.' Relates that she met a young lawyer called Mr [John?] Buchan some days previously, who commented in relation to the book that 'too much space in proportion had been given to the early letters'. States that 'John [her husband] is intensely interested [in the book]', but agrees with the aforementioned criticism. [Incomplete]

Strutt, Evelyn Georgiana (1847-1934) wife of John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh

Letter from Beth Finlay to Nora Sidgwick

Explains that she has hesitated to write to Nora sooner, lest a letter might seem almost an intrusion in the first weeks of Nora's great sorrow, but hopes that she will not mind her now ending a few lines to express her deep sympathy with her. States that all who have benefitted by Henry's 'self-sacrificing efforts in the cause of women's education realize how great a debt of gratitude is due to him', and that those, like herself, who had the privilege of attending his lectures and coming under the influence of his remarkable mind, 'are very conscious of all they owe him.' Trusts that Nora's health has not suffered and that she will still feel equal to go on with her work for the cause she and Henry 'have both been so devoted to.'

Finlay, Elizabeth (1853-1929) educationist

Letter from G.W. Prothero to Nora Sidgwick

Explains that he has been busy with Ecclesiastical Commission business, and the 'Camb[ridge] Mod[ern] Hist[ory]', and has only just found time to read Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir. Writes to tell Nora how much he likes and admires it, referring to its self-restraint and dignity, and to the way in which the letters 'are left to tell their own story, aided by the excellent pieces of biography or incidental explanation here and there.'

Prothero, Sir George Walter (1848-1922) Knight, historian

Letter from A. Dorothea Sanger (née Pease) to Nora Sidgwick

Does not wish to intrude upon Nora, but wishes her to know what a real personal sorrow she feels at the death of Henry Sidgwick. It was he more than any other person who made Cambridge what it was and is to her: 'a source of the best sort of inspiration', which she got from his lectures. Says that he made her love him personally, 'as well as almost reverence him.' Adds that her husband wishes Nora to know that he too 'had all this feeling for Dr. Sidgwick'.

Sanger, Anna Dorothea (1865-1955) wife of Charles Percy Sanger

Letter from F. Pollock to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for 'the old letters', of which he keeps a few 'for old time's sake.' Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir is 'full of interest'; wishes that there was more of the correspondence with Tennyson on English versification. Discusses the make-up of English verse. Remarks on an observation in the book on moral problems, and to another remark on authors' disgust with their works. Refers also to Henry's 'abrupt dropping of Arabic', and remarks that he would have expected him to keep it as a recreation. Refers to having reluctantly given up Sanskrit himself, and reports that a tour in the west of Ireland has set him 'dabbling in Gaelic....'

Pollock, Sir Frederick (1845–1937) 3rd Baronet, jurist

Letter from W. Lutoslawski to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks him for his letter of 16 May. Is glad to hear that he finds time to read his dissertation on Individualism, and would be very grateful to know his and Mrs Sidgwick's opinion on it. In relation to the Aberdeen lectureship, owns not to really care very much about it. Claims that his ability 'to express thoughts clearly in English has been sufficiently proved by public lectures in Glasgow University and in the Oxford Philological Society'. Also refers to the fact that he has taught psychology for three years in the University of [Karan]. Does not expect a favourable decision of the University Court, however, and has sent his application 'without testimonials of any kind'. Believes himself to be most qualified for the post. Does not consider such things as earning or a good position as essential to the fulfilment of his real aims. Reports that William James has written to him that there is some probability of his being invited to lecture on individualistic philosophy in the United States in the winter. Sends his best regards to Mrs Sidgwick.

Lutosławski, Wincenty (1863-1954) philosopher

Letter from Frank Podmore to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for the copy of Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir; has read a good deal of it. Says he is again impressed with the charm of [Henry's] style in the letters.' Miss Johnson hasinformed him that Nora would like him to write a review of the book for the Society for Psychical Research proceedings: would be honoured to do so. Relates that William Sidgwick of Shipton and his nephew [also William Sidgwick] 'gave evidence before [the] Faculty Committee of 1816, and regrets to say that 'they worked their mills 14 hours a day.' Offers to send Nora 'the blue book.'

Podmore, Frank (1856-1910) psychical researcher

Letter from W. Lutoslawski to Henry Sidgwick

Asks Sidgwick if he remembers his visit five years previously and their correspondence in relation to Sidgwick's article in Mind. Declares that since then, he has progressed in the expression of his views, having written 'a big book to prove that Plato did not always remain an appearance of something else, but that he became at last a true Being himself.' Refers to his last letter of Christmas 1894 'asking too many indiscreet questions', which Sidgwick left unanswered. Announces that he has written a work entitled Über die Grundvoraussetzungen und Konsequenzen der individualistischen Weltanschauung, in which he has developed the thoughts contained in his first letter to Sidgwick. Wishes to know Sidgwick's opinion on the work, which was recently published in Helsingfors, and sends a copy to him together with two other pamphlets - 'an account of Polish philosophy and a new theory of affinities of style, founded on a detailed investigation of Plato's style' - [not included].

Reports that after five years of research, he now wishes to return to teaching, and has been received by the University of Cracow as a 'Privatdocent', and will begin lecturing on psychology and logic in October. Expresses the hope of starting 'a true school of Polish philosophy.' Contemplates applying for the vacant Anderson lectureship of psychology in Aberdeen. Asks Sidgwick if he believes that they would 'object on general grounds to a foreigner?' Remembers 'with sincere gratitude' Sidgwick's kindness, and hopes one day to visit him again in Cambridge. Sends his regards to Mrs Sidgwick.

Lutosławski, Wincenty (1863-1954) philosopher

Letter from Henry Sidgwick to Edmund Gurney

Agrees with him that 'W.F.B[arrett?] cannot be allowed to use [Gurney's] experiments otherwise than in Report of Committee', and believes that he should not repeat at length in the Report what has already appeared in the Proceedings of the Society [for Psychical Research]. Offers to write to him. In relation to 'the barrister', states that he is quite willing to agree to him being taken on 'if he will do it gratis for love of science or if any one else will pay...' Adds that he may ask Smith to stay with him during the 'Mesmeric Experiments', and that 'it would not be much of a bore for Nora...' Asks Gurney if he thought 'anything [instructive] apropos of World's attack', and asks if the eminent scientist is their asinine friend.

Letter from J. S. Mackenzie to Nora Sidgwick

Although not wholly unprepared for the news of Henry Sidgwick's death, had always continued to hope he 'might be spared a few years longer'. Declares what a loss he feels it to be that he is no longer with them, and that the world seems to grow smaller without him. Adds that it is some comfort that he had done his work so completely, 'and that he will always live in the memory of those who had the privilege of being taught by him.' Refers to the kindness of Henry's in taking so much trouble on his [Mackenzie's] behalf 'at such a time.' Does not know wha the result of his writing may be, and states that he is 'now in direct communication with Lord [Arthur] Balfour on the subject.' States that his wife joins with him in sending thanks to Nora and in expressing his deep sympathy with her in her great loss.

Mackenzie, John Stuart (1860-1935) philosopher

Letter from W. Lutosławski to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to Sidgwick's article in the October number of Mind, which referred to their 'short interview' at Oxford. Expresses his regret that his recollection of the conversation is not reflected in the article. Clears up the question of his nationality, by stating firmly that he is 'not a Russian professor of philosophy', but 'a polish [sic] philosopher, accidentally employed as professor of philosophy at one of the universities of Russia.' Goes on to explain the difference between Russians and Poles - the latter, in his opinion, being civilised, and the former 'the most cruel Barbars, who kill their own prophets and are in eternal war with every manifestation of political or religious freedom.'

Quotes from the poem Dziady by the Polish poet Mickiewicz, and claims not to recognise 'any power nor any form of being above the individual.' Declares that he does not conceive an infinite personality, and knows nothing about an almighty, omniscient, perfect being. The being he knows best is, he says, himself - then other human beings. Admits the possibility of the existence of an invisible spirit, who may be named God, who is the cause of certain of his own actions, but does not concede the fact of his being almighty. Discusses his conception of God, whom he is 'inclined to deny' being his creator; thinks that he could not have been created at all, 'because creation implies a beginning in time and time is only the ideal form of phaenomena.' Claims that 'true beings' like himself are independent of time, 'because the existence of time itself is conditioned by their existence.' Illustrates the difference between succession and time. Describes his life as being 'a succession of events...not determinated in advance', and claims that his free will is the chief factor of his acts, and that he is conscious of his faculty of choice at every point of his life. States that the answer to the question "What do you think really exists?" is one which 'divides humanity into two entirely opposite camps, and influences not only philosophical doctrines, but also political, economical, religious beliefs.'

Refers to the different answers that would be given to this question by an individualist, and by a universalist. Claims that of the two, the universalist 'is the most diversified species'; that he appears as idealist in Plato or Hegel, as materialist in Democritus or Epicurus, as pantheist in Spinoza, as a pessimist in Schopenhauer, as a socialist in modern society.' Describes the universalist's views on politics, economics, religion, and psychology. Claims that due to the strength of universalism, individualism 'has frequently lost its best advocates through universalistic suggestion.' Refers to Descartes, who began with individualism, and 'ended in acknowledging concursus Dei in each act of our soul', and to Leibnitz, who 'could not get over the difficulty of interaction without harmonie préétablie.' Claims that the whole history of modern philosophy 'is full of such contradictions between the individual[']s independence and God[']s omnipotence', and notes the contradiction inherent in the belief in immortality, without believing oneself to be an uncreated, independent being. States that he has discussed his existence with different adherents of universalism: materialists, idealists, pantheists, pessimists, and has come to the conclusion that 'they might be right for themselves' and wrong as to his own existence and the existence of other individualists. Is content to let them be 'what they pretend to be', and hopes one day 'to make at last the personal acquaintance of that mysterious being, their master.' Defies their master, however, to become his master; announces that he will 'resist his power like Shelley[']s Prometheus "with a calm fixed mind"'. Claims to love mankind, truth, beauty, not because it is God[']s will, but because it is his own will, and asserts that he acts according to his ideas of duty, not imposed by any other being, but by his own consideration of the results of his action. Refers to 'a set of men', for example Nietzsche, whom he calls 'incarnated devils', and who are independent beings like himself, but 'their will has other aims.' States that he has no explanation for the mystery of interaction 'between the beings', as '[i]t is useless to explain a common experience by a very uncommon and remote hypothesis.' In relation to the 'supposed action of God on men', claims that if Descartes or Leibnitz understood how God could create or act', they could understand existence. Asserts that while they were 'parts, manifestations or servants of their God', he is his own lord, and that he can resist the action of their God if he so wishes.

Refers to Sidgwick having boasted of his 'cunning ways of "gaining time"', and asks him what has he gained after all. Claims that Sidgwick has left him in uncertainty whether he really exits, or whether he is 'only a manifestation of something else'. Assures him that he has read his books, a fact doubted by Sidgwick in his article, and refers to his admiration for the Methods of Ethics. Also refers to his Report on the census of hallucinations. Claims, however, not to seek in books answers to such questions as he has posed in his letter, From books, he claims, one might 'nearly always gather contradictory conclusions'. As a dialectician, he prefers to deal with living beings, who are able to answer his questions. Again asks Sidgwick what he thinks really exists, and why he cares so much to gain time. Apologises for the intrusion on Sidgwick's time. Expresses the hope to see him again 'some happy day', when he shall be allowed to return to England. States that he will then questions Sidgwick on his knowledge about true existence. Sends his compliments to Mrs Sidgwick. Asks Sidgwick if he has a copy of his article on immortality, 'published by W. T. Harris in the Journal of speculative philosophy at Washington'. Asks him to let him know if the letter reaches him, because, he claims, most of their letters 'are now opened by the police with the hope to find some information about [their] secret political associations.'

Lutosławski, Wincenty (1863-1954) philosopher

Letter from Richard Hodgson to Nora Sidgwick

Writes to express his sympathy with her on the death of Henry Sidgwick, who was by far the dearest and most helpful teacher and friend that he ever had; prays and believes that his personal influence will never leave those who have been left behind.

Hodgson, Richard (1855-1905) psychical researcher

Letter from J.S. Phillpotts to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for her letter. Thinks that Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir 'recalls a great deal of [Henry] to those who knew him', but fears that it would not give to those who did not know him 'any full reflection of the indefinite charm [there was] of his conversation or of the loveableness in his nature.' Admits that it is impossible to reproduce conversation in writing. Relates that he followed Henry and other friends in joining the Free Christian Union. Refers to J. J. Taylor, and suggests that his name is spelt 'Tayler'. Suggests that the Union was in some sense a precursor of the Christian Social Union and the Christian Social Service.

Phillpotts, James Surtees (1839-1930) headmaster and author

Letter from Sir George Young to Nora Sidgwick

Remarks on how bravely Henry Sidgwick met his death, especially since he was not by nature an athlete. Observes 'how little people know of what is [ ] worth knowing in the lives of their friends', and reports that a hint from his son Hilton, who is editing the Cambridge Review, encouraged him to try and remedy this 'in one conspicuous instance.' Hopes that he has said nothing that could offend the feelings of those nearest to Henry. Refers to the latter's letter to Young 'announcing the meeting at St John's, and inviting [him] [the only non resident admitted] to it', and to the use he [Young] made of the announcement 'to bowl over Charles [Roundell]', who had told him the same day of the Oxford resolution he mentions in his letter to the paper. Adds that when Cowell Williams sent him the resolution of thanks passed by the D[ ] Deputies and the [Liberation] Society he sent it on to Henry, 'and told them it was his due.'

Young, Sir George (1837-1930) 3rd baronet

Letter from Edward Young to Nora Sidgwick

Writes to express his sympathy with her on the death of Henry Sidgwick. Recalls a previous visit paid by the Sidgwicks to him [and his wife], which he describes as 'a sweet and precious memory now.' Declares that on that occasion Henry 'was so tender, so entirely his old lofty yet simple and child-like self.' Declares that it is difficult for him to realise 'the loss of a friendship extending, with never so much as a cloud, over 40 years....' States that he has been reading over old letters from Henry to him. Expresses how much he loved him, and claims that although their paths in life 'parted widely...the old Trinity affection was deep and strong....'

Young, Edward Mallet (1839-1900) Head Master of Sherborne School

Letter from James Ward to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks Nora for her note. Henry's rooms in Trinity College are to be cleared the following morning: he will go down there to see what papers there are. Assures her that everything can be safely left in his own rooms until she has time to give directions about them. Hopes that her fortnight's rest will do her good. Believes her to be 'one of those who realise that the very thing that makes a loss great makes it bearable.' Declares that the two men he has esteemed the most in the world were closely related to her [is the other her brother Arthur Balfour?], and remarks that the memories that she must have will sustain and strengthen her in the work she is still intent upon doing. Is very thankful to have known Henry: in some ways he shall 'miss him at every turn'; in others he feels that he is there.

Letter from J.S. Phillpotts to Nora Sidgwick

Has been reading Henry Sidgwick: A Memoir 'with great interest'; remarks that one misses in 'the "litera scripta" the peculiar charm of [Henry's] "vox viva"'. Speaks of Henry's charm, humour, openness and warmth. Reports that they have their 'Cambridge daughter [Bertha] home now', and that she has been made Librarian at Girton. Adds that 'Iceland [with] Scandinavian folk-lore is her hobby and to work at this she wants to be near a University Library.'

Phillpotts, James Surtees (1839-1930) headmaster and author

Letter from James Ward to Nora Sidgwick

They were surprised and very distressed to get very bad news of Henry from Miss [Edith?] Sharpley that morning. He had hoped that Henry would be in Scotland, 'recovering his strength in the bracing air there.' Had planned to return to Cambridge at the end of the following week, and would like to return immediately if there were any chance of Henry being well enough to see him. Tells Nora not to reply if this is not advisable. Reports that Henry told him of several things that he wished done in the event of his not being able to get his lectures on Metaphysics finished himself, and fears that he has not been able to do anything since he saw him last. Presumes that unless he has changed his mind about them he will not have anything fresh to say. Asks Nora to remember him to Henry, and to tell him of how deeply conscious he is of how much he owes to him. Adds that there are many men who hold him in the same esteem. Is having the books left in Trinity College in Mr Hides' rooms removed to his own as Hide's rooms are changing hands; trusts that this has Nora' approval.

Ward, James (1843-1925) philosopher and psychologist

Letter from Margaret Patterson to Nora Sidgwick

Announces that they are sending the letters [from Henry Sidgwick to her father, A.J. Patterson] to Nora that day, and apologises for the delay. States that there are not as many of them as they had previously thought there were. Asks Noa to acknowledge receipt of them.

Patterson, Margaret Esther (b 1883) daughter of Arthur John Patterson

Letter from Evelyn Wimbush to Nora Sidgwick

Writes to express her sympathy, 'as an old Newnham student', with Nora on the death of Henry Sidgwick, and to let her know how she and others feel 'this great loss'. Claims that most of what has been the best in their lives has come from their having been at Newnham. Says that they owe so much to Henry, and that 'the memory of his personal character will always give a standard and makes human nature appear as so much higher and nobler [a] thing'.

Wimbush, Evelyn (1856-1941) friend of Vernon Lee

Letter from R. K. Wilson to Nora Sidgwick

Writes to express his sympathy, and that of his wife, to Nora on the death of Henry Sidgwick. Says he was deeply grieved by the announcement in that morning's papers of the death of his friend. Declares that he felt reverence towards Henry, among whose attributes he counts wisdom, justice, sympathy and unselfishness. States that during his [Wilson's] fourteen years at Cambridge he had often occasion to ask his advice, 'or help, or both, and never asked in vain.' Adds that his wife's experience was the same 'during her connections with the Charity Organisation work'.

Wilson, Sir Roland Knyvet (1840-1919) barrister and writer on law

Letter from J. N. Keynes to Nora Sidgwick

Writes on the death of Henry Sidgwick, which has come as a great shock, despite his being in some measure prepared. Besides the personal loss he feels, he grieves 'that so much work that can ill be spared has been left unfinished'. Refers to the debt he owes Henry, and to his gratefulness for his kindness, his wise guidance, intellectual stimulus, and his ideal of duty. Says he had no other friend in Cambridge who has done for him as much as Henry has done. Trusts that in returning to her work in Cambridge Nora will find occupation for her thoughts that will prevent her from dwelling too much on her loss, but fears that even in her work that loss will ever be forcing itself on her attention. Adds that his wife joins him in sending sympathy to Nora.

Keynes, John Neville (1852–1949) logician, economist, and university administrator

Letter from Margaret Patterson to Nora Sidgwick

Refers to the letters from Henry Sidgwick to her father [A. J. Patterson], and states that her mother regrets having taken so long to finds them. Says that in all they number about sixty, and that 'almost all date since the year 1886.' Offers to send them to Nora. Adds that if her father kept the letters from years prior to 1886, these 'must be still in London, either at the Stores or at the Bank', and she regrets to say that they are not yet at her mother's disposal.

Patterson, Margaret Esther (b 1883) daughter of Arthur John Patterson

Letter from James Bryce to Nora Sidgwick

Thanks her and Henry for their gift of a book stand, which Bryce's sister [Mary or Catherine?] informs him arrived at B[ ] Square since he left the previous Monday. Explains that he and his wife are in Cumberland for four or five days [on their honeymoon?], 'before going to the further parts of Tyrol.'

Bryce, James (1838-1922) Viscount Bryce of Dechmont, politician

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