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Papers of Claude-Henri de Saint-Simon

These papers are of a miscellaneous nature, though many of them relate to the new encyclopaedia projected by Saint-Simon in the years 1808-10 and the scheme for a new école normale he was working on in 1812. The papers are interspersed with slips and wrappers bearing notes by Sraffa on the identification of the various writings and their relation to printed works.

Rouvroy, Claude Henri de (1760-1825), Comte de Saint-Simon, political and economic theorist

Rough pedigrees, papers relating to the Lawrence family, papers relating to the early life of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, and articles and scripts of talks by Lord Pethick-Lawrence

The contents of this class fall into several groups, as follows:

Rough pedigrees, c. 1957 (1-2)
Papers relating to the Lawrence family, 1825-57 (3, 3a, 4-13)
Papers relating to the early life of Lord Pethick-Lawrence, 1886-1905 (13a, 14-34)
Correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, 1919-60 (34a, 35-8, 38a, 39-60, 60a, 61-2, 62a, 62b, 63-9, 69a-d, 70-116)
Scripts and articles (116a, 117-34)

The correspondence in the fourth group derives from the Pethick-Lawrences’ numbered correspondence files, and relates to the following people and subjects:

Herbert Hoover (35)
The Elections (Conveyance of Voters) Bill (36-7)
The Gold Crisis (38, 38a, 39-42)
Sir Stafford Cripps (43-55)
Clement Attlee (56)
D. R. Grenfell (57-8)
Robert Boothby (59-60)
Aldous Huxley (60a, 61-2)
Sir Stafford Cripps (62a-b, 63-9)
The Cabinet Mission to India (69a-d, 70-6)
Pethick-Lawrence's resignation as Secretary of State for India (77-9)
The Reform of the House of Lords (80)
Viscount Mills (81)
Lord Boothby (82)
High Commissioners for India (83-115)
The Pethick-Lawrences' visit to Pakistan (116)

Papers of Henry Montagu Butler

Correspondence 1846-1918, diaries 1887-1917, journals 1873-1889, travel journals 1886-1905, sermons 1859-1916, commonplace book 1857-59, academical notes 1896-1912, testimonials for the headship of Harrow 1859

Butler, Henry Montagu (1833-1918), college head

Published works

Four bound volumes of offprints of Thomson's papers, 1876-1935, with other material relating to publications, including photocopies of three articles sent to G. P. Thomson by P. Spitzer in 1970.

Letters by Lord Pethick-Lawrence, and correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence

The contents fall into the following main groups:

A letter from ‘E. B.’ to ‘Bully’, 1887 (1)
Letters from F. W. Lawrence to family members, 1897-1901 (2-21)
Letters from F. W. Pethick-Lawrence to Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, and related papers, 1901-14 (21a-121)
Circular letters by F. W. and Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, written during a visit to India, 1926-7 (122-35)
Letters from F. W. (later Lord) Pethick-Lawrence to Emmeline (later Lady) Pethick-Lawrence, 1930-50 (136-200)
Letters from F. W. (later Lord) Pethick-Lawrence to Esther E. Knowles, 1927-56 (200a-224)
Correspondence between Esther E. Knowles and Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, 1946-59 (225-9)
Correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, 1914-61 (230-95)

The recipients of the letters in the second group are Lady Durning-Lawrence (2-10), Sir Edwin Durning-Lawrence (11-12), Theodora Lawrence (13), Mary Elizabeth Lawrence (14-15), Ellen Lawrence (16-20), and Annie Lawrence (21).

The papers in the last group, which derive from the Pethick-Lawrences’ numbered correspondence files, relate to the following people and subjects: Ramsay MacDonald (230); Hertha Ayrton (231); E. W. Barnes (232); Laurence Housman (232a-58); Evelyn Sharp (259); Keir Hardie (260-2); Hanna Sheehy Skeffington (262a-265); S. C. Cronwright-Schreiner (266); Douglas M. Hogg (267); Lord Darling (268); Sir Austen Chamberlain (269); Clement Attlee (270); Virginia Woolf (271); George Lansbury (272-3); Lord Allen of Hurtwood (274-5); Maude Royden (276); Sir Alan Lascelles (277); Kingsley Martin (278); G. M. Trevelyan (279-80); Sir Harold Spencer Jones (281); Lord Samuel (282); Lord Layton (283); Glen Byam Shaw (284-5); Viscount Hailsham (286); Dame Sybil Thorndike (287); F. H. Grisewood (288); John Profumo (289); Dame Edith Evans (290); Monk Gibbon (291-2); Princess Marthe Bibesco (293-4); and Paramasivan Subbarayan (295). These sub-groups are arranged in chronological order, according to the date of the first item in each.

Biographical and personal

A.1 - A.11 Biographical and autobiographical material

A.12 - A.53 Career and appointments

A.54 - A.64 Honours and Awards

A.65 - A.78 Letters of congratulation

A.79 - A.134 Family papers and correspondence

(The Taylor family, A.79 - A.104)

(The Boole family, A.105 - A.134)

A.135 - A.174 Personal correspondence

Taylor, Sir Geoffrey Ingram (1886-1975), knight, physicist and engineer

Letters by Lady Pethick-Lawrence, and papers relating to her

The contents of this class fall into the following main groups:

A memorial pamphlet to Francis Noel Pethick, 1904 (1).

Biographical notices of Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, 1912-35 (2-15).
Articles, notes for speeches, and other writings by (Lady) Emmeline Pethick-(Lawrence), 1901-47 (16-41).

Letters from Emmeline Pethick to F. W. Lawrence, 1900-1 (41a-146).

Circular letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, written during a visit to Egypt, 1904-5 (147-56).

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, written during a visit to Egypt, 1904 (157-64).

Letters from Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, and other papers, 1909-13 (165-71).

The letters in the fifth and sixth groups (147-64) were written by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence during a visit to Egypt in the winter of 1904-5 in the company of her sister Marie and her cousin Hetty Lawes, who had worked with Flinders and Hilda Petrie in 1896 during their excavations near Cairo. The letters form a connected account of the party’s travels in Egypt and of their journeys there and back. A brief description of the journey will also be found in the ninth chapter of My Part in a Changing World.—The following is a brief itinerary of the journey: The three women set off from London on Thursday, 4 November, crossed the Channel, and arrived at Marseilles by seven o’clock the following morning. There they boarded the P. & O. ship Victoria, which arrived at Port Said at 2 p.m. on Tuesday the 8th. They made a brief tour of the town, and then took at train to Cairo, where they spent the night at Shepheard’s Hotel. The following morning they visited the bazaars of Cairo and removed to the Mena House Hotel, in the shadow of the pyramids of Giza. There they met with some of Hetty’s Arab friends, including a bedouin named Abdul Enani Khattab, who accompanied them for the rest of their time in Egypt. They also met Hetty’s sister Josephine Plunkett and her family. After visits to the pyramids and the Sphinx, the women became enchanted with the country, and they devised a plan to travel down the Nile in a dahabeeyah, or houseboat, and return in a caravan. After a few days making preparations, they left the Mena House Hotel on Thursday the 17th, and boarded the dahabeeyah Bolbol; but they were prevented by a lack of wind from leaving Cairo till the 22nd. Thence they progressed down the Nile as far as Luxor, Fred Pethick-Lawrence joining the party at Sohag on the 15th. At Luxor on the 23rd they left the boat and pitched camp by the Temple of Karnak; and on Christmas Day they went by train to Aswan, where they stayed at the Cataract Hotel. They visited the Temple at Philae and the Barrage, then returned to Luxor on the 28th, where they met Fred’s sister Carrie and her friend. The party travelled from Luxor to Ouasta overnight on 30-31 December, and then began their journey across the desert by caravan. This journey took them by way of the Medum Pyramid and the Fayoum, back to Giza, where they arrived about 20 January. The dates of the events in this latter part of the journey are unclear.

The last group (165-71) comprises two letters written by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence while imprisoned at Holloway in 1909; a letter from the same place in 1912, and another written shortly after her release, while her husband was still in prison; and two documents relating to the civil action brought against them in 1913 by firms whose windows had been damaged by suffragettes.

Letters by Lady Pethick-Lawrence, correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, and poems

The contents of this class fall into the following main groups:

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, written during a visit to the United States, 1914 (1a, 2-24).

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, and other papers, 1915-24 (25-9).

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, written during a visit to South Africa, 1930 (30-58).

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, 1930-44 (59a-67).

Letters by Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence to F. W. Pethick-Lawrence, written at the time of the Cabinet Mission to India, 1946 (68-88).

Letters by Lady Pethick-Lawrence to Lord Pethick-Lawrence, 1947-53 (89-100).

Letters by Lady Pethick-Lawrence to Esther E. Knowles, 1922-48 (101-16).

Correspondence of Lord and Lady Pethick-Lawrence, 1916-38 (117-25).

Poems, etc., early 20th c. (125a, 126-36)

The papers in the eighth group (117-25), which derive from the Pethick-Lawrences’ numbered correspondence files, relate to the following people: Edward Carpenter (117), Miles Malleson (118-19), John Galsworthy (120-1), ‘A.E.’ (G. W. Russell) (122), Lady Lutyens (123), Virginia Woolf (124), and Gladys Cooper (125).

Early notebooks and research

This Section documents aspects of Thomson's education at the Perse School and Trinity College, Cambridge, and his early research conducted at the Cavendish Laboratory under the direction of his father immediately before and after the First World War.

The material is presented as follows:
B.1 - B.10 School notebooks 1905-10
The earliest of these dates from Thomson's first year at the Perse School, Cambridge, and the subjects covered include English literature and the classics as well as science and mathematics. During his last year at school he attended A. Wood's lectures at Cambridge University, and his notes on these appear at B.5 - B.7.

B.11 - B.31 Cambridge University. Undergraduate notebooks and early research 1910-14
The majority of these contain notes on lectures attended by Thomson during this period, including some by his father (B.26, B.27, B.30).
Item B.31 documents Thomson's first research at the Cavendish Laboratory, where he began work on positive rays under his father's direction in the summer of 1913, to be interrupted a year later by the outbreak of war.

B.32 - B.39 Research in Cambridge 1919-22
After the First World War Thomson returned to the Cavendish to resume the work on positive rays, turning later to anode rays with which he discovered, simultaneously with F.W. Aston, that lithium comprises two isotopes of masses 6 and 7.
The notebooks continue to May 1922, after which Thomson accepted an appointment as Professor of Natural Philosophy at Aberdeen University.

Many of Thomson's notebooks were re-used at different periods of his life; sometimes the old pages were torn out, sometimes he restarted from the back of the book. Occasionally a single notebook contains very diverse material, such as B.2 (school exercises at one end and personal accounts for 1924-26 at the other) and E.60 (school exercises followed by notes on thermonuclear research).

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