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‘The Glasse of Righteousnes’: an English translation of Den Spegel der Gherechticheit, by Hendrik Niclaes

See the table of contents below. On the spine is stamped ‘The Glasse of Righteousness by H. Nichol of the family of Love. M.S.S. Anno M. D. LXXX.’



f. i r: Title: ‘The Glasse of Righteousnes. (Speculum Justitiae) Through the holy Spirit of the Love of Jesus Christ and the deified Man, out of the Heavenly truth witnessed and published. To a declareing the Headsumme of the Upright Righteousnes or Kingly crowne of the Everlasting life. And is by HN perused anew and playnely or Distinctly declared. Translated out of Base-almayne. … ANNO. M. D. LXXX.’

f. 1v: Print of a symbolic representation of the Last Judgement, headed, in Low German, ‘Nu geit idt Gerichte ŏuer de Werlt: nu wert de Fŏrste desser Werlt vth-geworpen. Joan. 12.’ (John xii. 31). [1590 x 1630.]
The illustration depicts, in the words of the British Museum catalogue, ‘an angel hovering above two large orbs; a devil and skeleton standing on the right orb as it is swallowed by a hell mouth [with a lamb in front]; at left the same orb upturned, crush-ing the devil, the lamb with the flag of the resurrection standing on top of the fallen skeleton’. The angel carries a label inscribed ‘Nu is idt Heil de Kraft, vnde idt Ryck vnserem Gode geworden vnde de Macht Synem Christo Apoc 12’ (Rev. xii. 10). The lambs are each labelled ‘De Wech de Waerheit vnde idt Leuen’ (‘The Way, the Truth, and the Life’); the devils are each labelled ‘Sunde’ (‘Sin’).
Cf. British Museum No. 1870,0514.311.

f. 5r: ‘The First Booke. of the Glasse of Righteousnes.’
At the foot of the page is the date 1578.

f. 77r: Print of a symbolic representation of God in Heaven, 1656.
Engraved by Richard Gaywood. The print depicts a sun with the tetragrammaton in the centre, surrounded by clouds and a heavenly host. At the head is the text ‘Ego primus et ego novissimus: alpha et omega Is. 44.48. Ap.1.21.22’, and round the sun is ‘Coronae assimilabo judicium meum. 4.Esd.5.’ This is an elaboration of the device which appears on the title-page of several of Niclaes’s books, e.g. The Prophetie of the Spirit of Love (1574).

f. 78r: ‘The Second Booke of the Glasse of Righteousnes.’

f. 201r: ‘The Third Booke of the Glasse of Righteousnes.’

f. 295r: ‘The Tree of Life | The Fourth Booke of the Glasse of Righteousnes.’

f. 403r: Print of a heart and other emblems, captioned with verses beginning ‘Our Heart is the Minde of God’, [17th c.].
Two hands clasped in greeting in front of a lily, within a heart surrounded by rays of light, clouds, and winged heads. Above the hands are the words ‘Love trueth’, and amidst the clouds are the tetragrammaton and the word ‘Emmanuel’. Below the illustration are the following verses: ‘Our Heart is the Minde of God most high. Our Beeing amiable, as the sweet Lillie. Our faitfullnes Love and Trueth upright, Is Gods Light. life, and Cleernes bright.’

Letter from Isaac Barrow to the Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge

Pera, Constant[ino]politanae - After an apology for the long delay in writing to the Fellowship, Barrow gives an account of his travels from Paris, with a description of his stay in Florence, prolonged because of the plague in Naples, which was predicted to spread to Rome whither he had planned to go next; heeding the warning that if caught by the plague he would not be able to leave, and it proving too difficult to reach Venice, he embarks on a ship to Constantinople. He describes the present state of affairs under the Grand Vizier, Koprulu Mehmed Pasha, who had come to power two years earlier: his work to restore the Ottoman name at home and abroad, recovering the islands of Tenedos and Lemnos, repelling an attack by the Venetian fleet, suppressing a revolt in Moldavia and Wallachia by removing their princes, repressing the infighting threatening the prestige of the empire, most recently undertaking an expedition to Transylvania on the pretext that Prince Ragotzy, a Turkish subject, had invaded Poland hoping to take the kingdom for himself. Barrow predicts that Christendom will find in the Grand Vizier its worst enemy and describes his punishment of Parthenius, the Patriarch of the Greek Church, who was accused of intrigue with the Duke of Muscovy despite the commonly held view that the accusations were false, and who was hanged and left on display in his Pontifical robes as a deterrent to plotters. Barrow closes with a promise to return to Cambridge within the year.

Docketed by William Derham, "Paper. 1. Dr Barrows Lr the Fellows of Trin. Col. Cambridge from Constantinople. Caland August 1658. Publ. Lr 1. W.Ds.'

Barrow, Isaac (1630-1677), mathematician and theologian

‘Verbum Sapienti’, by Sir William Petty

(‘In Petty's list of his own writings … the entry “Verbum Sapienti, and the value of People” stands opposite the year 1665, and the internal evidence makes it probable that the booklet was written in the latter part of that year.’ (The Economic Writings of Sir William Petty, ed. C. H. Hull (1899), vol. i.))

Miscellaneous manuscript fragments removed from books in Trinity College Library

36 fragments, eight of them carrying notes as to which volumes they had been removed from. The group include two English fragments of the versified life of St Catherine (items 1-2), a 13th century fragment from the end of the Joseph story of the Poème Anglo-Normand sur l'Ancien Testament, removed from shelfmark K.3.77 (item 3), two fragments from the Avignon Selichot (items 7-8), two fragments from a medical text in Latin (items 9-10), a fragment on civil and canon law (item 17), and a fragment removed from Dr Hooke's papers carrying the header "Regulae Cromocritica de [Urina?]" inscribed by W. Derham as "Turkish writings & other Rhapsodical Receipts" (item 23).

Diary and account book belonging to Thomas Hebbes

Diary entries and accounts kept by a student in his last year at Trinity College, Cambridge in a printed diary for 1753 altered to the later date the diary started in February 1755 and continuing on through the beginning of February 1756 when Hebbes left Trinity for Kensington. Hebbes records academic activities: declaiming in Chapel, presenting an epistle to the Master of Trinity Dr Smith, and paying the Moderator's man for huddling before being examined by Mr Howkins, and then by two moderators, and four fathers in the 'theatre'. His accounts record purchases of food, a subscription to Dockrell's Coffee House, and a variety of miscellaneous items: a new wig, repairs to his watch, Christmas boxes, as well as expenses relating to trips to London, Saffron Walden, Royston, Chesterton, and Stourbridge Fair. He records money won and lost at cards and bowls, and money given to the poor. He mentions selling books, makes payments to the Junior Proctor, Beadle, Head Lecturer and Senior Bursar, and buys a bachelor's gown, and wine and port for the 'Batchelor's table' before taking his degree. The diary also appears to have been used for handwriting practice by Ellen Hebbes and possibly other Hebbes children.

Hebbes, Thomas (c 1733-1766), clergyman

Letter from Giacomo Casanova to Carlo Casanova


Dux 2 xbre 1791

Signor Nipote Carlo

Ho fatto subito jeri pagare all’onorato mercante Sala otto talari che gli dovevo, e ch’egli medesimo politamente mi disse l’anno passato che glieli pagherei al mio ritorno a Dresda, offrendomi ancora altra cioccolata se volevo, onde al vostro solito avete mentito.

Voi mi avete scritto una lettera da pazzo scapestrato impertinente, insolente, e mal onesta, che mai creditore scrisse a debitore, che mai nipote scrisse a Zio. Qual mai fu l’effetto, che la vostra vuota, ed ignorante testa pretese di ritrarre dalle ingiurie che mi dite in quella lettera?, voi che mi avete detto cento volte che non siete sensibile che alle parole, che le bastonate istesse in confronto delle parole vi sembrano carezze, voi che domandandomi à Venezia il mio divin perdono dopo il vostro latrocinio mi diceste un giorno di bastonarvi più tosto, ma di non mai rimproverarvelo. Ed io né vi rimproverai, né vi bastonai, né vi feci mettere in una fortezza, come vostro padre mi scrisse che dovevo fare, ma vi perdonai, e non vi rimprovero adesso la vostra infamia che per la cagione che la temerità con cui mi scriveste mi dimostra che ve la siete dimenticata. Ditemi, se eravate ubbriaco, quando mi avete scritto quella lettera, e vi accorderò il divin perdono che domandereste fino alla morte, che otterreste sempre, senza profittarne mai. Volete che vi rimandi la vostra impertinente lettera, che mi ha fatto tanto ridere? Ve la rimanderò: rispondetemi. Spero che rileggendola avrete quella vergogna che, impudente, non avete avuto a scrivermela.

Alla mia partenza da Dresda in Agosto dell’anno scorso vi dovevo (se non sbaglio) quaranta talari. Appena arrivato qui in Dux ve ne mandai venti. Dunque restano venti, e se fossero di più non negherò il mio debito tanto più che dite, cosa della quale non mi ricordo, che vi ho fatto una cambiale. Sappiate che un uomo onesto possessore di una cambiale non ha il dritto di dire ingiurie al debitore: il solo dritto che ha è quello di fargliela presentare nelle regole, e di procedere secondo le tranquille regole della giustizia, se non la paga. Fate dunque così ancor voi. Feci l’anno passato a Dresda due cambiali al mercante da panni, le mandò qui alla scadenza, e ventiquattr’ore dopo le pagai. Voi dunque, che volete far il mestiere di mercante, imparate a farlo con le leggi civili dell’onestà. Non sarà mai vero, povero nipote mio, che il denaro che io posso dovervi, abbia ad esser cagione che scappiate un altra volta da Dresda. Prima di arrivare a quest’eccesso gettatevi un’altra volta à piedi di vostro padre, domandategli il divin perdono, ed astenetevi dal dargli maggior afflizione, preparandovi però a ricevere con animo compunto la paterna correzione in parole, e vergognatevi alla fine di dire che preferite le bastonate, linguaggio di Galeotto, che sembra d’eroe alla vostra testa matta.

Andate dunque domani dal Signor Sala, portategli la cambiale che qualifica il mio debito, pregatelo di mandarla a Toeplitz al suo corrispondente, ed io quando l’avrò veduta la ritirerò pagandola, e così non avrete più ragione alcuna di dirmi ingiurie.

Non crediate che per questa vostra stramberia io sia in colera con voi—No. Spero che ne siate già pentito, e voglio finire la mia lettera, dandovi un buon consiglio. Eccolo.

Cambiate di condotta avanti che vostro padre paghi alla natura il grande inevitabil debito, o prevedetevi miserabile fino alla morte. Cominciate intanto a disporvi di palesargli tutti gl’imbrogli in cui vi siete immerso, e che mi son noti. Dio vi benedica.

Sono sempre con verità
Vostro affettuosissimo Zio

[Direction:] A Monsieur | Monsieur Charles Casanova | Au troisieme étage de l’hôtel de Saxe | à Dresde



Dux [Duchcov], 2 December 1791

Mr Nephew Carlo,

Yesterday I had the eight thalers paid at once that I owed to the respected merchant Sala. Last year he himself told me politely that I could pay him when I returned to Dresden, and he offered me more chocolate if I wanted it. So as usual you’ve lied.

You’ve written me the letter of a reckless madman, impertinent, insolent, and dishonest, such as no creditor ever wrote to a debtor and no nephew to an uncle. Whatever did your empty and ignorant head expect to accomplish with the insults in that letter? You who have told me a hundred times that you’re sensitive only to words and who said that compared to words a beating would seem like caresses to you; you who begged my ’divine forgiveness’ in Venice after you stole; you who once told me to beat you rather than reproach you. And I didn’t reproach you, or beat you, or have you locked up, as your father wrote to tell me I should, but I forgave you; and I’m not reproaching you now for that disgraceful action, since the audacity in your letter shows that you’ve forgotten all about it. Tell me, were you drunk when you wrote that letter? If so, I will grant the ’divine forgiveness’ you’re asking for right up until death, and you’ll always receive it without my taking advantage of it. Do you want me to return the impertinent letter that made me laugh so hard? I’ll return it; just let me know. When you reread it I hope you’ll feel the shame that you didn’t feel when you were writing it.

When I left Dresden in August of last year, I owed you (if I’m not mistaken) forty thalers. As soon as I arrived here in Dux I sent you twenty. So there’s still twenty, and if it’s more than that I won’t deny whatever you tell me it is; I don’t remember having given you a promissory note. You should know that an honest man who has a promissory note has no right to insult his debtor. The only right he has is to make him pay according to the rules, and if he doesn’t do that, to proceed peacefully in accordance with rules of justice. Then do so. In Dresden last year I gave two promissory notes to the clothing merchant, who sent the clothes when they were ready, and I paid him twenty-four hours later. You therefore, who want to become a merchant, should learn to do likewise, in accordance with civil law. It can never be, my poor nephew, that money I owe you should be the reason you flee from Dresden again. Before you go to that extreme, throw yourself once more at your father’s feet, beg him for his ’divine forgiveness’, and refrain from giving him greater affliction. Be prepared, however, to receive paternal correction with a contrite mind, and lastly, be ashamed to say you would rather be beaten. That’s the language of a galley slave, though it seems heroic to your crazy head.

So go to Mr Sala tomorrow, take him the promissory note that records my debt, and ask him to send it to his correspondent in Toeplitz. When I’ve seen it I will remit payment, and then you won’t have any reason to insult me further.

Do not believe that I’m angry at you for your strange behaviour. No, I hope you’ve already regretted it, and I want to end my letter by giving you some good advice. Here it is:

Alter your conduct before your father pays the great inevitable debt to nature, or I foresee that you will be wretched until your own death. Meanwhile prepare to reveal to him all the imbroglios you’ve gotten into, which are well known to me. God bless you.

I am always truly
Your most affectionate uncle,

[Direction:] To Mr | Mr Charles Casanova | Third Floor, Hôtel de Saxe | Dresden

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