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Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

States that he has read Sidgwick's criticism of his book [The Science of Ethics], and expresses his satisfaction in having 'a candid and generous critic'. Observes that most of the points at issue between the two would require a treatise instead of a letter. Refers to pain and pleasure, and to how conduct is determined by one or the other. Admits that he 'could have obviated the criticism by a more careful articulation of the logical framework.' Refers to Sidgwick's contention that he exaggerates the novelty of the evolutionist theory 'and especially by overlooking Comte.' Clarifies that if he has done so, it was 'through carelessness of expression', and claims that he has learnt much from Comte, of whom he has a higher estimate than most people, especially scientific people, who object to his religion. States that he believes that [ ] happiness consists 'in the dramatic and friendly affections'. Hopes that they shall always remain friends.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Expresses his eagerness to write in honour of Darwin [on the occasion of the publication of Francis Darwin's Life and Letters of Charles Darwin], but envisages some difficulties, viz., the papers, including the Times, being so full of Darwin 'from every point of view' that it will be difficult 'to make one's voice heard.' Presumes that [J. T. ?] Knowles and others have already arranged for reviews. Refers to Darwin's own autobiography, and suggests that any review should merely say 'read it'. Remarks that F[rancis] Darwin 'may be quite sure that the book has intrinsic interest enough to dispense with any [puffing] or interpreting.' Undertakes to read the book at once, and consider what he can do. Complains of '[t]hat accursed dictionary [of National Biography]', which he describes as a treadmill, but claims that he is getting into a sort of routine, which will give him time to do other things. Claims that he is always trying to get to Cambridge to see his boy [his step-son George Duckworth] there, but doesn't often succeed; hopes to be there one day during the term, and promises to make an effort to see Sidgwick. Expresses his [and Mrs Stephen's) gladness that [Arthur?] Balfour is convalescing.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Hopes 'to be back in 80 days'. Asks about the possibility of postponing his lecture from May to the following October, but states that if Sidgwick has any difficulty in procuring a substitute, he will fulfil the original engagement. Claims that he pleased to hear of another edition of Sidgwick's book. States that although he doesn't agree with it on many points, he owes a great deal to it. Wishes that Sidgwick 'could get the freewill problem fairly put in a box!' Reports that he has given Sidgwick's message to Symonds, who 'seems to be going on with remarkable steadiness and to be for him in good health.'

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Mentions that in their list of names for the Dictionary [of National Biography] is Arthur Holmes, who was Sidgwick's contemporary at Cambridge. States that he knew him, but is unable to find any account of his life. Asks Sidgwick to tell him where an account might be found, and if Holmes produced or edited any work 'which makes a notice of him desirable.' Reports that he is slowly, but steadily improving in health, despite an attack of influenza. Is more confident that another summer of idlesness will restore him to working order.

Stephen, Sir Leslie (1832-1904) Knight, author

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Confirms that 29 October suits him as a date for giving the lecture. Reports that his health has improved of late. Discusses the topic of the lecture, and suggests 'an answer to Martineau [ ] who told [him] that [he is] logically bound to believe in the absurd doctrine that goodness produces happiness to the doer thereof.' Comments that such a topic "means another disquisition about morality in general and the 'Methods of Ethics'." Offers to think of a more practical topic if Sidgwick so wishes. Suggests as a title 'Optimism and Morality'. Reports that he only made two speeches in the [NS] and that 'the thermometer was not generally much above 80.'

Letter from Leslie Stephen to Henry Sidgwick

Is glad to send the circular as promised. Mentions a tablet under the windows. Asks if Sidgwick knows anyone with money to spare for the project. Mentions his sermons and that he had heard from [George Croom?] Robertson in Aberdeen. Says that his wife sends greetings to Mrs Sidgwick.

Letter from Alexander Stewart to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to a conversation between himself and Sidgwick in Aberdeen, at the close of a meeting of the 'Economical Section' about the re-publication in a separate form of Sidgwick's article 'Ethics' in the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Explains that the Church of Scotland has four committees, one for each of the four universities, for the examination of students entering the Divinity Halls. The text book in Moral Philosophy since the committees were first appointed has been Fleming's Manual [of Moral Philosophy], but when Sidgwick's article appeared Stewart believed that it offered what was required as a substitute for the Manual, which had proved to be unsatisfactory for the purpose, and he spoke to Professor Baynes about asking Sidgwick to publish separately. Now writes a semi-formal letter, which had been suggested by Sidgwick when they met in Aberdeen. Reports that since that meeting he has communicated with conveners and members of the four committees, and that they are prepared to adopt it as their text-book in Moral Philosophy if Sidgwick would be willing to republish it in a form and at a price somewhat similar to those of [Jevon's] Elementary Lessons on Logic. Claims that 'the moderate size yet comprehensiveness' of Sidgwick's article, and the space devoted in it to Greek and English Ethics, and especially to the influence of Christianity, makes it suitable for the purposes of the committee. Suggests that there are probably other examining bodies who would be glad of such a book. Is unaware of what the Boards of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches do in regard to this matter. Offers to open up communications with them. Reports that the name of the text-book to be used at the examinations in October must be inserted in the Mission Record for April. Asks Sidgwick to let him know whether he would be agreeable to the above proposal, and whether he could have the answer back by April 'or so soon thereafter' as to justify their publishing it in the April edition of the Mission Record.

Stewart, Alexander (d 1915) Principal of St Andrews University

Letter from J.H. Stirling to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks HS for sending him his book The Methods of Ethics, and says that he will 'take it up and read it from time to time'. Refers to the attitude of Hume and Hegel to ethics, and also refers to Begriff and [Alt]. States that he fears that he shall not be able to take the same interest 'in these Mills and Bains and Spencers, etc.' as Sidgwick does. Has no doubt, however, that he will gain much from the matter and form of his book.

Stirling, James Hutchison (1820-1909) philosopher

Letter from James Stuart to Henry Sidgwick

Reports that he has that day heard from Leeds, Bradford, Keighley and Halifax, who had a joint meeting on the previous Friday, and outlined their requirements in relation to lectures and lecturers; Political Economy for Leeds and Halifax, Physical Geography for Leeds and Halifax, and Constitutional History for Bradford and Reighley. Leeds also wants a third subject, i.e., astronomy, and 'expects Wakefield to join [on] and ask for astronomy'. Discusses their course needs in more detail. Refers to [Edward] Carpenter, of Trinity Hall. Mentions that Stoke upon Trent want Physical Geography after Christmas and talks of sending Sollas there rather than keeping him at Halifax. Mentions that [Herbert?] Foxwell 'wants to go during the Lent term'. Asks Sidgwick for his opinion on what they should do in relation to the arrangement of lectures. Suggests sending [Bonser] to lecture for the October term. Asks Sidgwick to take the letter to Browne to see what he says. Asks if [Bonser] will be in Cambridge the following week. Thinks he will return there himself the following Saturday, if he is able. Reports that he has only been out in the garden yet, but is steadily, but slowly, getting better. Announces that he is going to meet the Liverpool Committee on the following day.

Stuart, James (1843–1913) MP and Professor of Mechanism, Cambridge University

Letter from James Stuart to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Sidgwick for his letter. States that he did change his mind about Bower before writing to Browne. Reports that he saw Hargrove and Cunningham and both of them 'doubted Bower's succeeding'. Remembering Newman and the critical character of [Leid?] Stuart thought they could not risk it. Reports that Hargrove is a great friend of Bower, and the latter said that he thought that they should tell the latter to give a few lectures somewhere 'so as to judge from'. States that 'Read of St Johns seems the man naturally coming instead of J[akes] Browne', but that he has written to Browne that day, referring to the matter of Leicester. Expresses his regret at the news of Craik's death, and reports that he had 'arranged him to come in for Nottingham for "Light and spectrum analysis". States that he would hardly like to risk Whitwell for two terms, but thinks they might try him once. Says he will write to Stanton. Comments that Craik's death has caused the proposed Nottingham scheme up, and hopes that Sheffield will soon take the scheme up now. Reports that he and Cunningham and [ ] met the committee. Adds that it has struck him that Foxwell might give a short Introductory course for six weeks in September and October, and that he has written to him making this suggestion.

Stuart, James (1843–1913) MP and Professor of Mechanism, Cambridge University

Letter from F. Synge to Henry Sidgwick

Writes to inform Sidgwick that '[c]ertain ladies in Norwich desire to improve their minds by lectures in History if they can', and asks him how such a class might be arranged. Looks forward to 'seeing more of Cambridge than the station.'

Synge, Francis (1837-1878) clergyman and inspector of schools

Letter from Anne Thackeray Ritchie to Mrs Nora Sidgwick.

Writes that Leslie [Stephen] came to see her the previous day and told her [about Henry Sidgwick's condition], and that evening a letter came from Blanche Cornish 'with a bitter report.' Sends their love to him and asks Mrs Sidgwick to tell him that they 'think and long for his easier moments and recovery.'

Ritchie, Anne Isabella (1837–1919) writer, wife of Sir R. T. W. Ritchie

Letter from I. Todhunter to Henry Sidgwick

Writes on philosophy in Cambridge. States that the correspondence of Hare and Whewell gives him the impression 'that there was very little mental philosophy read at Cambridge in their younger days'. Whewell's lectures were very well attended in the early years after he was appointed professor, but the numbers attending declined after he began to develop his new system. Refers to the paper set on philosophy for the Trinity Fellowships, and to Trinity lecturers Thompson and Cope. Refers to his own undergraduate days from 1844 to 1848, and mentions the works on philosophy which were influential at that time: an article of ancient philosophy by [Maurice], and Lewes' Biographical History of Philosophy. Believes that Lewes led him and many of his contemporaries to read J.S. Mill.

States that in St. John's College in his time 'a meagre abridgement of Locke used to be read in the first year, which 'finally disappeared under Roby's zealous efforts to reform [the students].' In relation to mental philosophy in those days, remarks that there 'must have been persons who were fond of [it]', and reports that he say a copy of the French translation of some of Sir W. Hamilton's essays in the private room of the mathematical tutor Mr Hopkins. Relates that Herschel's [Preliminary Discourse on [the Study of] Natural Philosophy 'was a book much read at Cambridge'. Mentions the absence of any account of the Greek Philosophy in Thirlwall's History [of Greece], and the political activity in England consequent on the Reform Bill and its results, as possible causes of the lack of interest in [mental philosophy].

Refers to a perceived 'taste for philosophy' arising in the previous thirty years at Cambridge, and cites theological influences as the possible cause, e.g., Butler's Analogy [of Religion], the sermons of Harvey Goodwin, and Dr Mill's contact with Hare and his Christian Advocate publications. Relates having, with others, admired the Sermons of Archer Butler, and having encouraged Macmillan to buy Butler's manuscripts, and publish the Lectures on Ancient Philosophy. Thinks that they appeared in 1856. Refers to Sir W. Hamilton, who 'became first known to most Cambridge men for his attacks on mathematics and on the Universities', and to W. Walton 'of Trinity Hall formerly of Trin. Coll.'. Adds that in 1834 'Sterling and J.C. Hare and others wanted to found a prize for Essays on the Philosophy of Christianity in honour of Coleridge', but the H[eads] would not allow it. Announces that he shall publish two letters from Whewell to Hare on the subject.

Todhunter, Isaac (1820-1884) mathematician and historian of mathematics

Letter from G.M. Trevelyan to Henry Sidgwick

Writes that Sidgwick's letter gave him great encouragement and pleasure. Reports that he is in 'a cold fit' about his book [England in the Age of Wycliffe], which he refers to as 'a second-rate' history book. Declares how much he values the opinions of Sidgwick and others. Agrees with Sidgwick 'about the faulty construction of the first part', and that the story of the Peasant's Rising 'could have followed straight after the last paragraph of Chap III'. Paragraph crossed out in pencil: Expresses how much he enjoyed, and profited from, the Methods of Ethics; reports that he read [Plato's] Republic again that summer. Refers to the 'struggle across the Channel', which, he claims, 'is now neither more nor less than God v the Devil with the odds on the Devil.' Refers to the Dreyfus Affair. Quotes a stanza from Heine.

Trevelyan, George Macaulay (1876–1962), historian, public educator, and conservationist

Letter from E.B. Tylor to Henry Sidgwick

Announces that he is 'returning Podmore with thanks' [not included]. States that he wishes the Society [for Psychical Research] every success in its new departure. Thinks that it would be absurd 'to set aside telepathy and the like as impossible on a priori grounds'. Intends to follow the Journal of Psychical Research in its new volumes, and thanks Sidgwick for informing him of the present states of the enquiry. Announces that he must give up coming to Cambridge that term.

Tylor, Sir Edward Burnett (1832-1917) Knight, anthropologist

Letter from J. Tyndall to Henry Sidgwick

Writes in reply to Sidgwick's plea for a recommendation of a teacher. Observes that Sidgwick's difficulty is enhanced by the range of subjects which he requires the teacher to undertake. Suggests that he limit himself for the present 'to such subjects as can be taught in a real and healthy manner'. Claims that the back-bone of modern science is formed by chemistry and physics. Announces that he knows of one man who is likely to suit Sidgwick's requirements: a German, Dr Debus, who is a chemist, has a thorough knowledge of physics and is a good mathematician. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society and an examiner of the University of London. He has been teaching boys in England for the previous fifteen years. Explains that he recommended him some time ago to a professorship at Sandhurst 'but they preferred an Englishman.'

Tyndall, John (1820–1893) physicist and mountaineer

Letter from Arthur W. Verrall to Henry Sidgwick

Writes from St Beatenberg, 'near Interlaken, on a hill side looking over the lakes of Thun.' Announces that he and his wife are going to Baden on the following Saturday, in order to try the baths and waters there. States that he has derived much good 'from mountain air and complete idling'. Reports that [Gilbert] Murray has been with them most of the time, and that he has proved to be an excellent companion. He has now gone home, and Miss [Jane] Harrison has joined them. She is 'probably to carry off Helen to the mountains' when he and Mrs Verrall go to Baden. Reports that they spent nearly three weeks about the Lake of Lucerne, and have been in St Beatenberg for about ten days. Refers to the weather and the scenery, and his activities.

Reports that they follow the newspapers, and that letters from England bring reports of Sidgwick from time to time. Presumes that he is at [Aldgate], but sends the letter to Cambridge 'for safety.' Refers to Frank Sidgwick's poems. Discusses hotels and the difficulty of making acquaintances in them. Reports that his wife is 'fairly well', and hopes that Baden 'may supply something for her.' Does not think that she will go to Paris. Announces that they will not be going home until September, and states that the house is at Sidgwick's service until then.

Verrall, Arthur Woollgar (1851–1912) classical scholar

Letter from Baron Friedrich von Hügel to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Sidgwick for sending him the third edition of his Outlines of the History of Ethics. Reports that he had already bought a copy, which he gave away when he received another copy from Sidgwick. Reports that he has now read, 'with much interest and gratification', his modifications and additions, 'especially the note about the Heathen Roman Persecutions and the amplification of the account of S. Bonaventure.' Has not yet had time to read his additions to his previous account of Hume, Adam Smith and Bentham. Looks forward to reading the Methods of Ethics. Observes that Sidgwick has 'done nothing to the Z[ ] account.' Still believes it to be one-sided and misleading. Hopes to meet Sidgwick in Cambridge in the spring. Mentions the 'handsome allusion to the criticism of correspondents on p.x', and is pleased to count himself as one of the persons alluded to.

Hügel, Friedrich Maria Aloys Franz Karl von (1852-1925) religious writer and theologian

Letter from Charles Waldstein to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to Henry Sidgwick's impending 'serious operation'. Attributes to him and [Henry] Bradshaw the main credit for 'any good work' that he [Waldstein] may have done since coming to Cambridge. Writes of how much Sidgwick's personality and example have influenced him. Asserts that the credit for the improvements to university life over the previous twenty years is due to Sidgwick and others who stood by him.

Walston, Sir Charles (1856-1927) Knight, archaeologist

Letter from W.G. Ward to Henry Sidgwick

Thanks Sidgwick for 'the kind attention' he gave to Ward's essay. Reports that he has had one of two letters from Bain, 'who intends to reply'. Expresses the hope that he will have the opportunity of entering on the [ ] questions raised by Sidgwick. Confesses to feeling great confidence, but states that he feels strongly that a good deal more has to be said. Hopes that the objection Sidgwick has made will help him to bring out his meaning on one or two points with much greater clearness.

Ward, William George (1812-1882) philosopher and theologian

Letter from W.G. Ward to Henry Sidgwick

Informs Sidgwick that he has sent him a paper entitled 'Supplementary Remarks on Free Will', which is 'very easy reading and not long'. Hopes that Sidgwick will read it. Believes that on reading it Sidgwick will realise that his criticisms of Ward's previous paper were based on misconception of his meaning.

Ward, William George (1812-1882) philosopher and theologian

Letter from Edward M. Young to Henry Sidgwick

Refers to having received that morning from Sidgwick a note, which filled him with sorrow. Quotes the words that Jesus uttered on the cross before he died, and hopes that these words, which had been used by Polycarp, Bernard, Luther, [Huss] and others at their death, will be also used by Sidgwick at his demise. Refers to Sidgwick's 'dear wife, for whom they [Young and his wife?] feel for 'most deeply'.

Young, Edward Mallet (1839-1900) Head Master of Sherborne School

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